Alaska: Glaciers and glaciation

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Doubleday, Page, 1904 - Alaska

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Page 83 - The trough in which it [the glacier] lies is forested along the water edge on both sides for the greater part of the distance from the main fiord to the glacier, but barren in the immediate vicinity of the glacier. There are straggling trees high on the valley wall at the end of the glacier, but they do not come down •close to the ice.
Page 71 - that which has been before described, both being equally bounded " at no great distance by a continuation of the high ridge of snowy " mountains ; as they passed the eastern bay they again heard the " thunder-like noise, and found that it had been produced by the fall" ing of the large pieces of ice that appeared to have been very re...
Page 109 - It is, that the combination of a climatic change of a general character with local conditions of varied character, may result in local glacier variations which are not only unequal but opposite.
Page 62 - It was seen only from the west, and was supposed to be a tongue or distributary arm of Nunatak Glacier. The fact that it lay several hundred feet higher than the tidal arm has raised doubts as to the correctness of the first impression, and I now suspect that it was only the remnant of a former arm of the glacier, stranded as a motionless and slowly-wasting summit mass. On the map of the Canadian Boundary Commission (1895) it is represented as a distributary of the glacier.
Page 88 - ... discharges more icebergs than any of the other cascading tongues and terminates with a precipitous cliff over 100 feet high. GILBERT states that the Bryn Mawr Glacier, "next south of the Smith, is somewhat larger. Its two main branches, gathering in mountain valleys not well seen from the sea, became visible in twin cascades, and then, uniting their streams, make a second leap to the sea. As tide is reached, there is a tendency to flatten the profile, and the central portion of the stream becomes...
Page 54 - No general advance or retreat of the glaciers over the whole region explored during historic times is to be recorded. In some areas a general advance has occurred, and in others the ice has shrunk back as much as thirty miles within a century, but in the Pleistocene Age, or...
Page 104 - The most conspicuous fact brought out by the comparison of local histories is that they are dissimilar. Nevertheless, there are limited resemblances. The Glacier Bay and Disenchantment Bay histories agree in including a great retreat, occupying more than a century. The Port Wells and Grewingk histories agree in a moderate retreat occupying something less than a century. The La Perouse 105 and Columbia histories agree in a present condition of maximum glaciation probably preceded by an important minimum.
Page 216 - It thus appears that there is no important difference, as respects pressure on the rock bed, between a glacier resting on the land and one which is partly bathed by the water of a fiord; and, so far as glacial erosion is conditioned by pressure, the presence of the sea does not diminish the efficiency of the glacier.
Page 129 - ... arched gently across this axis, rising noticeably from the above western coast but declining very slowly to the east, where it continues almost unbroken a short distance beyond lake Wakatipu. Gilbert's words (1904) in describing the summit-levels about the Alaskan fiords apply perfectly to our area. "The approximation of the summit heights to uniformity is too close to be accounted for without the hypothesis of an uplifted plain, but the departures from uniformity indicate that little if any...

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