Thirty Years of World Bank Shelter Lending: What Have We Learned?
Robert M. Buckley, Jerry Kalarickal
World Bank Publications, Jan 1, 2006 - Social Science - 117 pages
"As England's Industrial Revolution started the process of urbanization that has since characterized development throughout the world, a poet worried about the ""dark satanic mills"" that were such a fundamental part of this revolution. However, despite his misgivings, he also suggested that it was necessary for societies to arm themselves with ""chariots of fire"" and other weapons so that they could master this process. In a somewhat more prosaic poetic vein World Bank President Robert McNamara launched the bank's shelter assistance programs saying that 'If cities do not begin to deal more constructively with poverty, poverty may begin to deal more destructively with cities.' These concerns would appear to have even more resonance today as the population of cities in developing countries increasing by unprecedented levels of more than 1 billion people per year for the next 15 years. This magnitude suggests the scale of the increase in the investment in shelter needed to meet the needs of this growing population."
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1982 in Zimbabwe affordable approach areas Asia Bank Shelter Lending Bank’s basic Bertaud borrowers Brazil Buckley chapter cities city’s closed loans constraints costs demand developing countries Dhaka disaster relief economies effective figure financial systems formal housing Grosh growth Hernando de Soto households housing finance housing finance system housing market housing policy housing sector housing subsidies housing subsidy programs important improve income increase India infrastructure innovations institutional interventions investment involved Kalarickal Latin America low-income housing market-based housing finance Mexico Millennium Development Goals million Moroccan dirhams mortgage finance Mumbai overall percent policy environment policy makers poor population poverty private sector problems property rights public sector recent reforms regulations shelter assistance shelter lending shelter loans shelter policy shelter projects sites and services sites-and-services projects slum dwellers slum upgrading Sub-Saharan Africa targeting tenure titles transition countries urban development urban land markets World Bank Shelter Yes Yes
Page 93 - The eight goals are to eradicate extreme poverty and hunger; achieve universal primary education; promote gender equality and empower women; reduce child mortality; improve maternal health; combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases; ensure environmental sustainability; and develop a Global Partnership for Development (UNDP 2003).
Page xvii - IDA International Development Association IDB Inter-American Development Bank IFC International Finance Corporation...
Page x - If cities do not begin to deal more constructively with poverty, poverty may well begin to deal more destructively with cities.
Page 21 - Pacific Europe and Central Asia Latin America and the Caribbean Middle East and North Africa South Asia Sub-Saharan Africa Total Source: World Bank.
Page 12 - Europe and Central Asia and the Middle East and North Africa, the growth rates have been converging.
Page 3 - EJOR will hardly find anything new in this book, however, which constitutes the main limitation of the book. The book is divided into three parts. In the first part, "Introduction and Basic Concepts", the reader is introduced into the subject matter.
Page 29 - A set of detailed and precise legal rules governs this entire process. Formal property records and titles thus represent our shared concept of what is economically meaningful about any asset. They capture and organize all the relevant information required to conceptualize the potential value of an asset and so allow us to control it.
Page 9 - Squatter upgrading and sites and services projects should continue to be the prime instruments for improving the housing conditions of the urban poor.