Late Ottoman Society: The Intellectual Legacy
When the Ottomans commenced their modernizing reforms in the 1830s, they still ruled over a vast empire. In addition to today's Turkey, including Anatolia and Thrace, their power reached over Mesopotamia, North Africa, the Levant, the Balkans, and the Caucasus. The Sultanate was at the apex of a truly multi-ethnic society. Modernization not only brought market principles to the economy and more complex administrative controls as part of state power, but also new educational institutions as well as new ideologies. Thus new ideologies developed and nationalism emerged, which became a political reality when the Empire reached its end. This book compares the different intellectual atmospheres between the pre-republican and the republican periods and identifies the roots of republican authoritarianism in the intellectual heritage of the earlier period.
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Abdiilhamid Abdulhamid II Abdullah Cevdet active administrative training Ahmed Nebil Ahmet Albanian Ankara appointed kaymakam Arabic Armenian Baha Tevfik Balkan Balkan Wars became Besir Fu’ad Biichner Bukhara Bulgarian caliphate Cankaya concept criticism cultural Djevdet Eastern Anatolia Efendi elite European fatwas Felsefe ﬁrst French Greek Guyau Haeckel Hamidian Hanioglu Hilmi Ibid Ictihad idadi school ideas ideology important inﬂuence Ioannina Islam Ismail Istanbul journal kaymakam Kemal Kemalist language late Ottoman Leskovik Matbaasi materialism Mehmed Mekteb-i Miilkiye Midhat modern Mu'lkiye Mufti Muslim Mustafa nationalism nationalist nineteenth century non-Muslim ofﬁcial Orthodox Ottoman administration Ottoman capital Ottoman Empire Ottoman intellectual Ottoman materialists Ottoman society pamphlet pan-Islamism Paris philosophy poetry political published Qur’an reform regime religion religious riistiye role scientific secular Shahin Kolonja social studied sultan Tanzimat Tarih Tertib-i Cedid tion translation Turkey Turkish ulema vilayet Vlora Western women write Young Turk Revolution