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affirmed animal antecedent applied Archbishop Whately ascer ascertained assertion attributes axioms body called carbonic acid cause circumstances coexistence color combination common conceive conception conclusion connexion connotation consequent considered copula deductive definition denoted distinction doctrine earth effect ellipse empirical law equal evidence example exist experience expression fact follow force genus ground hypothesis idea individual induction inference inquiry instance invariable John Herschel kind known language laws of causation laws of nature logic logicians mark meaning men are mortal merely Method of Agreement Method of Difference mind mode mortal motion object observation oxygen particular peculiar phenomena phenomenon philosophers planet possess predicate premisses present principle produced properties proposition proved quadrupeds quantity ratiocination reason relation resemblance respecting result sensations sense signification Socrates species substances supposed supposition syllogism term theory things tion true truth ultimate uniformities universal universal proposition Whewell word
Page 198 - The cause, then, philosophically speaking, is the sum total of the conditions, positive and negative, taken together; the whole of the contingencies of every description, which being realized, the consequent invariably follows.
Page 172 - Induction, then, is that operation of the mind, by which we infer that what we know to be true in a particular case or cases, will be true in all cases which resemble the former in certain assignable respects. In other words, Induction is the process by which we conclude that what is true of certain individuals of a class is true of the whole class, or that what is true at certain times will be true in similar circumstances at all times.
Page 201 - But it is necessary to our using the word cause that we should believe not only that the antecedent always has been followed by the consequent, but that as long as the present constitution of things endures it always will be so.
Page 585 - ... defines the end, and hands it over to the science. The science receives it, considers it as a phenomenon or effect to be studied, and having investigated its causes and conditions, sends it back to art with a theorem of the combination of circumstances by which it could be produced.
Page 459 - That gravity should be innate, inherent and essential to matter, so that one body may act upon another at a distance through a vacuum, without the mediation of anything else by and through which their action and force may be conveyed from one to another, is to me so great an absurdity, that I believe no man who has in philosophical matters a competent faculty of thinking can ever fall into it.
Page 374 - In order that any alleged fact should be contradictory to a law of causation, the allegation must be, not simply that the cause existed without being followed by the effect, for that would be no uncommon occurrence; but that this happened in the absence of any adequate counteracting cause. Now in the case of an alleged miracle, the assertion is the exact opposite of this.
Page 120 - When we say, . . . All men are mortal, Socrates is a man, therefore Socrates is mortal ; it is unanswerably urged by the adversaries of the syllogistic theory, that the proposition, Socrates is mortal, is presupposed in the more general assumption, All men are mortal...
Page 201 - That which will be followed by a given consequent when, and only when, some third circumstance also exists, is not the cause, even though no case should ever have occurred in which the phenomenon took place without it.
Page 15 - A name is a word taken at pleasure to serve for a mark which may raise in our mind a thought like to some thought we had before, and which being pronounced to others may be to them a sign of what thought the speaker had before in his mind.
Page 154 - Necessary truths," says Dr. Whewell, " are those in which we not only learn that the proposition is true, but see that it must be true ; in which the negation is not only false, but impossible; in which we cannot, even by an effort of the imagination, or in a supposition, conceive the reverse of that which is asserted.