LDEF: 69 Months in Space. First Post-Retrieval Symposium, Part 1
LDEF was carried into orbit in April 1984 by the Space Shuttle Challenger. The 11-ton satellite contained 57 experiments to assess the effects of the space environment, i.e., ionizing radiation, meteoroids, cosmic dust, and high altitude atomic oxygen on materials and mechanical, electronic, optical, and living systems. In January 1990, after 69 months in low Earth orbit, LDEF was retrieved by the Space Shuttle Columbia and returned to Earth. The retrieval occurred 57 months after it was originally planned, due in part to the Challenger tragedy. The 69 months in space provided experimenters the unique opportunity to sample and measure the space environment over a longer time period than originally planned. The 57 LDEF experiments were returned to the Principal Investigators and their science teams for analyses and interpretation. In June 1991, over 400 LDEF researchers and data users met in Kissimmee, Florida for the First LDEF Post-Retrieval Symposium. The papers presented contained important new information about space environments and their impact on materials, systems, and biology.
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LONG DURATION EXPOSURE FACILITYA GENERAL OVERVIEW
LONG DURATION EXPOSURE FACILITY LDEF SPACE ENVIRONMENTS OVERVIEW
PINHOLE CAMERAS AS SENSORS FOR ATOMIC OXYGEN IN ORBIT
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absorbed dose activity altitude aluminum analysis angle approximately atmosphere atomic oxygen calculated canister components cosmic rays counts crater density deposition detector diameter direction distribution dose dosimetry Duration Exposure Facility Earth effects electron energy experiment trays Exposure Facility LDEF fiber fluence flux foils galactic galactic cosmic rays gamma gamma-ray impact craters impact features impactor induced radioactivity interplanetary IOCM ionizing radiation ions Kapton Laboratory layer LDEF data LDEF experiments LDEF mission LDEF orbit LDEF Post-Retrieval Symposium LDEF spacecraft LDEF surfaces leading edge locations Long Duration Exposure longeron mass materials measurements meteoroid micrometeoroid molecular film NASA neutrons observed optical outgassing panel particles payload peak penetration Photograph PNTDs predicted radionuclides ratio residue retrieval satellite sensor shuttle bay solar South Atlantic Anomaly space debris space end spacecraft spectra surface of LDEF Tapelift Teflon temperature thickness tracks trailing edge trapped proton tray clamps trunnion velocity