## Kinetic Theory: The Nature of Gases and of HeatKinetic Theory, Volume I: The Nature of Gases and of Heat deals with kinetic theory and the nature of gases and heat. A comprehensive account of the life, works, and historical environment of a number of scientists such as Robert Boyle and Hermann von Helmholtz is presented. This volume is comprised of 11 chapters and begins with an overview of the caloric theory, the principle of conservation of energy, the ""virial theorem,"" and atomic magnitudes. The discussion then turns to the qualitative atomic theory of the ""spring"" of the air, proposed by Robert Boyle; Isaac Newton's repulsion theory; Daniel Bernoulli's thery on the properties and motions of elastic fluids, especially air; and George Gregory's theory on the existence of fire. Subsequent chapters focus on Robert Mayer's theory on the forces of inorganic nature; James Joule's theory on matter, living force, and heat; Hermann von Helmholtz's theory on the conservation of force; and Rudolf Clausius's theory on the nature of heat. James Clerk Maxwell's dynamical theory of gases is also examined. This book is written primarily for students and research workers in physics, as well as for historians of science. |

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### Contents

1 | |

9 | |

THE CONSERVATION OF ENERGY | 19 |

REVIVAL OF THE KINETIC THEORY | 22 |

THE VIRIAL THEOREM | 30 |

ATOMIC MAGNITUDES | 31 |

Bibliography | 34 |

PART 2 | 42 |

Chapter 4 The Existence of Fire | 66 |

Chapter 5 The Forces of Inorganic Nature | 71 |

Chapter 6 On Matter Living Force and Heat | 78 |

Chapter 7 The Conservation of Force | 89 |

Chapter 8 The Nature of the Motion which we call Heat | 111 |

Chapter 9 On the Mean Lengths of the Paths Described by the Separate Molecules of Gaseous Bodies | 135 |

Chapter 10 Illustrations of the Dynamical Theory of Gases | 148 |

Chapter 11 On a Mechanical Theorem Applicable to Heat | 172 |

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### Common terms and phrases

assume atmosphere atoms bodies Boyle Boyle's Boyle's law caloric theory cause centre of gravity chemical Clausius collisions compressed constant constitute corresponding deduced density direction distance energy English translation equal equation equilibrium equivalent exert experiments falling force fluid friction gaseous hence Herapath hypothesis impact increase James Clerk Maxwell James Prescott Joule Joule kinetic theory Krönig layer length of path liquid living force London magnitude mass material points mathematical matter Maxwell mean free path mean value mean velocity memoir molecules move nature number of molecules number of particles paper phenomena Phil Philosophical physics plane pressure principle probability Prop properties proportional quantity of heat ratio relation reprinted repulsive forces Royal Society RUDOLF CLAUSIUS scientific scientists side specific heat sphere of action suppose surface temperature theorem theory of gases tion translatory motion vapour virial virial theorem vis viva viscosity viva weight