American Consuls in the Holy Land, 1832-1914

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Wayne State University Press, 1994 - History - 388 pages
This volume provides new insights into the role of U.S. consuls in the Ottoman Middle East in the special context of the Holy Land. The motivations and functioning of the American consuls in Jerusalem, and of the consular agents in Jaffa and Haifa, are analyzed as part of the US diplomatic and consular activity throughout the world, and of Western involvement in the Ottoman Empire and in Palestine during the century preceding World War I. The processes of cultural, demographic, economic, environmental, and settlement change and the contribution of the US consuls and American settlers to development of and modernization of Palestine are discussed. Based on primary archival sources such facets as the role of consuls regarding the use of extraterritorial privileges, Western religious and cultural penetration, control of land and land purchase, non-Muslim settlement, judicial systems, and technological innovations are considered from American, Ottoman, and local viewpoints.
 

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Contents

Abbreviation of Archives
11
Plates
17
Introduction
19
Figures
28
The frontispiece of Coxs book
30
Chapter One Consuls and Capitulations
41
The work of the United States consul
57
Sultan Abdul Hamid II on horseback
59
Consular guards at the United States consulate
182
Building plan of the United States consulate
184
Extraneous Activities
188
Chapter Five Work of the Consulate and Consular Agencies
197
Adamss American colony which later became the German
218
Letterhead of the American Club at Jaffa
231
Camp of the Lynch expedition near a ruined bridge
242
Chapter Six Legal and Economic Aid and Consular Reporting
243

Chapter Two America and the Ottoman Empire
68
Consular posts under the jurisdiction of the United
80
Letterhead of passport issued by the United States
82
Chapter Three The United States Consulate and Consular Agencies
93
View from the sea of the inner harbor and old city
114
Jaffa and its environs 18781879
118
Portrait of Warder Cresson
127
Administrative division of Palestine 1900
131
Telegram sent via Acre by John T Edgar the consul
153
Chapter Four United States Consuls in Jerusalem
154
Plan of the GermanAmerican Templer colony at Haifa
268
GermanAmerican Templer colony near Haifa
269
Advertisement for American oil imported to Palestine
292
Conclusions
294
Appendices
307
Lists of Staff
335
Jerusalem
345
Glossary
350
Index
373
Copyright

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About the author (1994)

Ruth Kark of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem has written and edited books and numerous articles on the historical geography of Palestine and Israel. Her research interests include the study of concepts of land, land use, patterns if land ownership in Palestine in the 19th and 20th centuries, urban and rural settlement processes, and western influence on the Holy Land.

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