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Chapter 3 LVSEM for High Resolution Topographic and Density Contrast Imaging
1st Int'l Conf 2nd Int'l 3rd Int'l Conf anode array astigmatism atomic axial axis beam voltage Brodie chromatic aberration coating complex conduction band cone current density deflection field deflection system deflection yokes detector e-beam electric field electron affinity electron beam electron beam lithography electron emission electron optical emitter emitting energy spread error function etched fabrication field distribution field emission FIGURE film focusing and deflection Fowler–Nordheim function gate high resolution IEEE Trans immersion lens insulator IOP Conf layer lens field linewidth LVSEM magnetic field metal method molybdenum Monterey nanometer Nanowriter objective lens operation optimization oxide p-n junction Pawley Phys plane PMMA post-lens pre-lens probe produce radiation resist second deflector semiconductor Series 99 shown in Fig signal silicon specimen Spindt cathodes structure substrate surface Technol temperature thickness thin tunneling upper pole-piece vacuum microelectronic devices Vacuum Microelectronics Williamsburg
Page 19 - A detailed consideration of all these effects is beyond the scope of this chapter, and the interested reader is referred to specialist texts on the topics concerned [eg, 1 7.
Page 17 - Kelvin, n is the atomic volume in cm3, £2 is the atomic volume in cm3, D is the surface diffusion coefficient in cm2/s, R is the tip radius in cm, y is the surface tension in ergs/cm2, and F is the electric field in V/cm. Also, note from Gomer  that F % V/5R.