Geography, Technology, and War: Studies in the Maritime History of the Mediterranean, 649-1571
When maritime transport and communication depended on muscle and wind-power, the Mediterranean Sea functioned as a symbiotic force between the civilisations which surrounded it, at once the major dividing barrier and the major connecting element. In this study, the technological limitations of maritime traffic are considered in conjunction with the peculiar geographical conditions within which it operated, and which led to the establishment of major sea lanes on trunk routes along which traffic could move safely, efficiently, and economically. These trunk routes remained virtually unchanged from antiquity to the sixteenth century, and eventually constituted economic and strategic maritime frontiers between civilisations. At the same time, the technological limitations of the oared galley meant that coasts and islands along the trunk routes had also to be held, a necessity which favoured geographically the Christian West over the world of Byzantium and Islam.
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The fourteenth to sixteenth centuries
Navigation the routes and their implications
The ninth and tenth centuries Islam Byzantium and the West
The twelfth and thirteenth centuries the Crusader states
Acre Aegean Alexandria Algiers Anatolia Arabs attempted Barbary bases Beirut Braudel Byzantine Byzantium carried Christian West Christides coast commerce Conquest Constantinople continued corsairs course Crete Crusader currents Cyprus dangerous early east eastern economic Egypt Egyptian empire Europe evidence fact fifteenth figure fleet forces fourteenth century galleys Genoa Genoese Greek hand Islam islands Italian Italy land late later Levant limited London major maritime traffic medieval Mediterranean merchant Middle Ages miles Muslim shipping nature naval navigation navy oars operations Ottoman Paris particularly passim period ports possible probably raiding reach referred relations remained Rhodes Romanie sailing sailing ships sea lanes Sicily siècle sixteenth century society sources southern squadrons studies sultan supplies Tenenti thirteenth century trade trans trunk routes Turkish Turks twelfth century types Venetian Venice voyages Western winds winter Yassi Ada
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