Connecting East Asia: A New Framework for Infrastructure
World Bank Publications, 2005 - Business & Economics - 251 pages
Much of East Asia continues to grow rapidly, driven to a considerable extent by China. Urbanization is proceeding at pace. Demand for infrastructure services is increasing massively, particularly in cities. Much of the demand comes from the newly urbanized poor. Infrastructure has to meet their needs, but has also to continue to provide the underpinnings for the region's growth. The complexity of responding to these demands is greater than ever, and the cost of getting things wrong very high. Poorly conceived infrastructure investments today would have a huge environmental, economic, and social impact--and be very costly to fix later. Neglecting the infrastructure needs of people remaining in poor parts of East Asia--particularly in rural areas, and in isolated countries of the region; and failing to include them in growth, would also be costly, in human and political terms. This study is about East Asia, and it's about infrastructure. It's about poverty and growth, and it's about transport, water, sanitation, power, and telecommunications--both the infrastructure, and the infrastructure services. Infrastructure is only one part of the development challenge, but its impacts are among the most important. 'Connecting East Asia' looks at the role that infrastructure has played in supporting East Asia's growth and looks ahead at what the challenges are for the future, and how to approach them.
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accountability and risk agencies areas Asia's benefits Cambodia capital central Chapter China competition concession concession contract consumers contract corruption costs Country Notes crisis decentralization developing countries East Asia electricity ensure environmental example expenditure Figure financing fiscal space framework funding growth and poverty implementation important improved inclusive development income increased Indonesia infrastruc infrastructure development infrastructure investment infrastructure projects infrastructure sectors infrastructure service provision institutions investors Lao PDR levels logistics long-term Malaysia Manila Water ment Millennium Development Goals million Ministry Mongolia Myanmar official lenders Pacific island percent Philippines planning political poor population poverty reduction private investment private sector public sector reform region regulators regulatory revenue risk management roads role rural service delivery service providers Source subsidies tariffs telecom telecommunications Thailand tion transport ture urban users utility Vanuatu Vietnam water and sanitation water supply World Bank
Page 46 - Improved sanitation facilities refers to the percentage of the population with at least adequate excreta disposal facilities (private or shared, but not public) that can effectively prevent human, animal, and insect contact with excreta. Improved facilities range from simple but protected pit latrines to flush toilets with a sewerage connection. To be effective, facilities must be correctly constructed and properly maintained.
Page 56 - With starting points in 1 990, each goal is to be reached by 201 5: 1 . Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger Halve the proportion of people living on less than one dollar a day. Halve the proportion of people who suffer from hunger. 2. Achieve universal primary education Ensure that boys and girls alike complete primary schooling. 3.
Page 46 - Access to an Improved water source refers to the percentage of the population with reasonable access to an adequate amount of water from an improved source, such as a household connection, public standpipe, borehole, protected well or spring, or rainwater collection. Unimproved sources include vendors, tanker trucks, and unprotected wells and springs. Reasonable access is defined as the availability of at least 20 liters a person a day from a source within one kilometer of the dwelling.
Page 57 - Integrate sustainable development into country policies and reverse loss of environmental resources. • Halve the proportion of people without access to potable water.
Page 197 - motorway' means a road specially designed and built for motor traffic, which does not serve properties bordering on it, and which: (a) is provided, except at special points or temporarily, with separate carriageways for the two directions of traffic, separated from each other by a dividing strip not intended for traffic or, exceptionally, by other means; (b) does not cross at level with any road, railway or tramway track, or footpath; and (c) is specially signposted as a motorway. 'Express road...
Page 188 - Improved' sanitation technologies are connection to a public sewer, connection to septic system, pour-flush latrine, simple pit latrine, ventilated improved pit latrine. The excreta disposal system is considered adequate if it is private or shared (but not public) and if it hygienically separates human excreta from human contact. 'Not improved' are service or bucket latrines (where excreta are manually removed), public latrines, latrines with an open pit.
Page 194 - Fixed-line and mobile phone subscribers are telephone mainlines connecting a customer's equipment to the public switched telephone network, and users of portable telephones subscribing to an automatic public mobile telephone service using cellular technology that provides access to the public switched telephone network.
Page 40 - East Asia and Pacific American Samoa, Cambodia, China, Fiji, Indonesia, Kiribati, Korea, Dem. Rep., Lao PDR, Malaysia, Marshall Islands, Micronesia, Fed. Sts., Mongolia, Myanmar, Northern Mariana Islands, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Thailand, Timor-Leste, Tonga, Vanuatu, Vietnam Europe and Central Asia Albania, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Georgia, Hungary...
Page 8 - Japan 0 2 4 1 = underdeveloped 7 = as developed as the world's best 0246 1 = infrequent and inefficient 7 = as extensive and efficient as the world's best Source: World Economic Forum 2003.