Critical Theory and Democratic Vision: Herbert Marcuse and Recent Liberation Philosophies
The most broad and general description of critical theory (one of the most important movements in social and political philosophy in the twentieth and now twenty-first century) is that it is a synthesis of Marxist social critique and Freudian psychoanalysis with traces of German idealism. Farr argues that the goal demand for social change by critical theorists is rooted in a desire for the completion of the U.S. democratic experiment. There is too much exploitation, surplus repression, alienation, dehumanization, oppression, and gross economic inequality in the U.S. for us to believe that we have achieved a complete or finished democracy. Herbert Marcuse's form of critical theory provides us with important theoretical tools for addressing the ways in which our attempt to create a democratic society based on fairness, justice, and equality has been de-railed. While Marcuse experienced tremendous popularity in the 1960s and 1970s, his popularity has since waned in academic circles as well as in public political discourse. This book is an attempt to rescue from obscurity some of Marcuse's most helpful insights with respect to progressive, democratic social change. Its unique feature is an attempt to put Marcuse in dialogue with what Farr calls recent liberation philosophies such as feminism and African American philosophy. He takes all of these forms of philosophy to be driven by a democratic impulse whereby we are made to realize that there are many social groups that have been excluded from democratic decision-making processes.
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Beyond Drive Theory
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advanced industrial societies American argue attempt become biological body capitalist chapter claims communicative action concept consciousness context critical theory critique cultural cuse's Dasein democratic struggles desire dialectical discourse ethics discussion domination Douglas Kellner emancipatory equality erasure Eros and Civilization examine existence Frankfurt School freedom Freud Freudian function Habermas Hegel Hegel's Ontology Hegelian Heidegger Heidegger's Herbert Marcuse historical idea ideal identity ideology important individual insofar instincts interpellation intersubjective John Rawls JUrgen Habermas justice liberation philosophy lifeworld Marcuse writes Marcuse's critical theory Marcuse's theory Marx Marxian moral nature needs negation negative norms notion object object relations theory One-Dimensional one's Ontology oppressive person pleasure principle political position positivism possible present reality principle problem produced rational Rawls reality principle revolutionary subject role self-determination self-development self-formative processes sensibility slave social change social groups structure superego theorists Theory of Society thinking tion tradition understanding unity University Press values wherein