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The geographical social and historical background I
The Ottoman Heyday
The rise and zenith of the Ottoman Empire
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administration Aḥmad Aleppo allies Anatolia appointed Arab army attempt authority Baghdād Balfour Declaration Başra Bayezid became began Britain British British government brought Cairo caliphate campaign century chief Christian command conquest continued Damascus death defeated dynasty early effect Egypt Egyptian established European faction Fakhr Fertile Crescent finally followed forces formed France French further governor grandees head held Husayn Ibrāhīm important independence influence interests Iraq Iraqi Islam Istanbul Janissaries khedive known lands later Lebanon limited London Mamluk March military Muḥammad Muslim nationalist obtained occupation officers organized origin Ottoman Empire Palestine Pasha passed period Persian political position principal provinces régime region reign remained returned revolt rule ruler Selim sent Shaykh situation society sought successful successor sultan Syria territory tion took traditional troops Turkish Upper viceroy western Zāhir