Introductory [science Primer]

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American book Company - Science - 94 pages

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Page 27 - There are laws about the payment of taxes, and there are laws against stealing or murder. But the law is not the cause of a man's paying his taxes, nor is it the cause of his abstaining from theft or murder. The law is simply a statement of what will happen to a man if he does not pay his taxes, and if he commits theft or murder...
Page 16 - Science," as Professor Huxley says, "is the knowledge of the laws of Nature obtained by observation, experiment, and reasoning. No line can be drawn between common knowledge of things and scientific knowledge; nor between common reasoning and scientific reasoning. In strictness, all accurate knowledge is Science, and all exact reasoning is scientific reasoning. The method of observation and experiment by which such great results are obtained in Science is identically the same as that which is employed...
Page 26 - Whenever we have made out by careful and repeated observation,'' says Professor Huxley, "that something is always the cause of a certain effect, or that certain events always take place in the same order, we speak of the truth thus discovered as a law of nature.
Page 7 - Thus we believe • that everything is the effect of something which -preceded it as its cause, andl that thiss cause is the effect of something else, and so on, through a chain of causes and effects which goes back as far as we choose to follow it. Anything is said to be explained as soon as we have discovered its cause, or the reason why it exists ; the explanation is fuller, if we can find out the cause of that cause ; and the further we can trace- the chain of causes and effects, the more .satisfactory...
Page 19 - ... and common sense are not opposed, as people sometimes fancy them to be, but science is perfected common sense. Scientific reasoning is simply very careful common reasoning, and common knowledge grows into scientific knowledge as it becomes more and more exact and complete. The way to science then lies through common knowledge-; we must extend that knowledge by careful observation and experiment, and learn how to state the results of our investigations accurately, in general rules or laws of nature...
Page 2 - Chemistry HE ROSCOE. Physics. . .BALFOUR STEWART. Physical Geography A. GEIKIE. Geology A. GEIKIE. Physiology M. FOSTER. Astronomy. . . JN LOCKYER.
Page 5 - ... awake we are learning by means of our senses something about the world in which we live and of which we form a part ; we are constantly aware of feeling, or hearing, or smelling, and, unless we happen to be in the dark, of seeing ; at intervals we taste. We call the information thus obtained sensation. When we have any of these sensations we commonly say that we feel, or hear, or smell, or see, or taste, something. A certain scent makes us say we smell onions ; a certain flavour, that we taste...
Page 58 - You know that when the winter is severe, the pipes by which water is brought 6 to a house often burst. This is because the water in them freezes, and, being unable to get out of the pipe, bursts it, just as you may burst a jacket that is too tight for you by stretching yourself. Among the bare hill-tops, or on the face of cliffs exposed to the weather, the strongest and hardest rocks are every winter split and broken, just as if quarrymen had been at work at them. In the summer the rainwater gets...
Page 16 - But those who have never tried to observe accurately will be surprised to find how difficult a business it is. There is not one person in a hundred who can describe the commonest occurrence with even an approach to accuracy.
Page 21 - That is to say, the water being put in motion is able to transfer that motion to something else. All these phenomena, as things which happen in nature are often called, are effects of which water, under the conditions mentioned, is the cause, and they may therefore be said to be properties ( 4) of water. All things which occupy space, offer resistance, possess weight and transfer motion to other things when they strike against them, are termed material substances or bodies, or simply matter.

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