Malaspina Expedition 1789-1794: Journal of the Voyage by Alejandro Malaspina.
Among the voyages of exploration and surveying in the late 18th century, that of Alejandro Malaspina best represents the high ideals and scientific interests of the Enlightenment. In July 1789 he sailed from Càdiz in the purpose-built corvettes, Descubierta and Atrevida. On board the vessels were scientists and artists and an array of the latest surveying and astronomical instruments. The voyage lasted more than five years. On his return Malaspina began work on seven-volume account of the voyage, to dwarf the narratives of his predecessors in the Pacific such as Cook and Bougainville. But he became involved in political intrigue, was imprisoned, and then spent the rest of his life in obscure retirement in Italy. He never resumed work on the great edition, and his journal remained long unpublished. Only now is justice being done to the achievements of what for long was a forgotten voyage. This is the final volume of the series of three which presents Malaspina's journal for the first time in English translation and with commentary. It covers the expedition's return voyage from Manila, its visits to New Zealand, Australia, the Tonga Islands and the Falklands, and its arrival in Càdiz on 21 September 1794. Appendices contain Bustamante's survey of East Falkland Island, his visit to Puerto de la Soledad and his search for Islas Auroras, an account of Malaspina's arrest and the suppression of his report, and details of the two corvettes with lists of their complement and of the scientific instruments and books taken on the expedition.
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From Manila to Zamboanga
From Zamboanga to the Pacific Ocean 2 I
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Acapulco afternoon AGMAB Alejandro Malaspina alférez altered course anchor anchorage Antonio Antonio Pineda astronomical Atrevida Bahía breeze Bustamante Cabo Cádiz Callao calm Cape chart chronometers coast commanding officer continued convoy corvette Descubierta corvettes crew distance Don José east East Falkland edition Espinosa expedición Malaspina expedition expedition's fathoms favourable Felipe Bauzá Fernando Brambila frigate full sail Gertrudis Godoy Ha'apai harbour hydrographic Isla Island islets Juan latitude leagues distant light airs Lima longitude Madrid Manila María marines meridian miles Montevideo morning Museo de América Museo Naval navigation night nightfall noon o'clock observations observatory offshore passage Piloto pinnace Point Port Jackson Puerto Punta quadrant reef Río Santa Sarangani Sarangani Islands seemed ships sight soon Spain Spanish survey tack Talcahuano Teniente de Navío Tonga Tongatapu took topsails Valdés Vava'u voyage Vuna weather west of Cádiz