How to Make and Use the Storage Battery: Embracing Its History, Theory, Maintenance, and the Installation of Plants

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Bubier Publishing Company, 1896 - Storage batteries - 140 pages
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Page 109 - This lead salt is found native as the mineral plattnerite. It is a heavy lead ore, forming black, lustrous, six-sided prisms. It may be prepared from the red oxide by boiling it in fine powder, with nitric acid diluted with five parts of water, or by treating the carbonate when suspended in water with a stream of chlorine gas, and then thoroughly washing and drying it. It is reduced to a lower oxide on heating or by exposure to bright sunlight. This salt readily imparts oxygen to other substances...
Page 94 - The volt is the practical unit of electromotive force, and is the electromotive force which will maintain a current of one ampere through a resistance of one ohm. It is equal to 10...
Page 107 - When heated to dull redness, litharge assumes a dark brown color, and becomes yellow again on cooling. At a bright red heat it fuses and readily attacks clay crucibles, forming silicate of lead. Litharge is a most powerful base, and has a strong tendency to form basic salts. Hot solution of alkalies, as potash or soda, readily dissolve it, and on cooling, it crystalizes out in form of beautiful pink crystals.
Page 94 - ELECTRICAL UNITS The volt is the practical unit of electromotive force, or difference of potential or electrical pressure. The ohm is the practical unit of resistance, which varies directly as the length and inversely as the area of section of a conductor. The ampere is the practical unit of strength of current, or velocity. It is often described as the measure of current density. The coulomb is...
Page 91 - How to Make and Use the Storage Battery," 91, 93 (1896). proved, and in a few days all the elements presented a beautiful appearance. " When removing sulphate by this method it is found the best way to take out the de-sulphating solution, after the plates have been brought to a healthy condition, and replace it by the ordinary dilute acid electrolyte, otherwise the negative plates are said to deteriorate.
Page 42 - By the passage of an electric current nitrate of lead is formed, and by the acid of the bath this is converted in a continuous manner into sulphate of lead and afterwards into peroxide of lead. In some hours, without discharging or reversing the current, the positive plates become covered with an adherent layer of crystalline peroxide of lead, which may be over a millimetre thick, and of great electrical capacity.
Page 88 - When it is necessary to cause n certain current to flow through a considerable resistance, as a long telegraph line, for instance, the necessary EMF is obtained by connecting cells in series — that is, the copper of one cell to the zinc of the next, and so on until the requisite EMF is obtained, the relatively small increase of the total resistance due to the internal resistance of the cells being of little effect. The total voltage is the sum of the voltages of all the units so connected. But...
Page 11 - ... lead sulphate, and the oxidation of the increasing amounts of finely-divided lead thus brought into the field of action. To obviate this waste of power and time, Faure covers both plates with red lead, and converts this into spongy peroxide and spongy lead respectively by the current. Now the first thing that happens, when the plates are immersed in dilute sulphuric acid, is a purely chemical action. The minium suffers decomposition according to the formula — Pb2O4 + 2H2SO4 = PbO2 + 2PbSO4...
Page 107 - The scaly pieces are afterwards ground between stones under water, forming buff or levigated litharge. The litharge of commerce often has a reddish yellow color, due to the presence of some of the red oxide of lead ; and frequently from one to three per cent. of finely-divided metallic lead is found mixed with it.
Page 89 - As the results of some experiments made with a view of ascertaining the effect of adding sulphate of soda to storage battery solution, it is found that the addition of sodium sulphate to the ordinary acid electrolyte has a distinctly beneficial effect upon the working of the cell. It has been found that upon the addition of these soda salts a large proportion of the sodium sulphate is formed in close contact with the lead sulphate on the peroxide plate, and that this formation was favorable to the...

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