Supersymmetry and String Theory: Beyond the Standard Model
The past decade has witnessed dramatic developments in the field of theoretical physics. This book is a comprehensive introduction to these recent developments. It contains a review of the Standard Model, covering non-perturbative topics, and a discussion of grand unified theories and magnetic monopoles. It introduces the basics of supersymmetry and its phenomenology, and includes dynamics, dynamical supersymmetry breaking, and electric-magnetic duality. The book then covers general relativity and the big bang theory, and the basic issues in inflationary cosmologies before discussing the spectra of known string theories and the features of their interactions. The book also includes brief introductions to technicolor, large extra dimensions, and the Randall-Sundrum theory of warped spaces. This will be of great interest to graduates and researchers in the fields of particle theory, string theory, astrophysics and cosmology. The book contains several problems, and password protected solutions will be available to lecturers at www.cambridge.org/9780521858410.
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anomaly antisymmetric tensor axion baryon baryon number branes Calabi–Yau chiral ﬁelds compactiﬁcation compute conﬁgurations consider coordinates corresponding cosmological constant covariant D-branes decay deﬁne deﬁnition density derivative difﬁcult dilaton effective action energy example expectation value fermions ﬁeld theory ﬁnd ﬁnite ﬁrst ﬁxed ﬂat directions ﬂavor function gauge bosons gauge coupling gauge ﬁelds gauge group gauge invariant gauge symmetry gauge theory gauge transformations gaugino hadrons heterotic string IIB theory inﬂation instanton interactions Lagrangian left-moving lepton light cone loop low-energy mass massless matrix metric moduli space momentum multiplet non-perturbative orbifold parameters particles path integral perturbation theory physics potential quantum quarks and leptons right-moving satisﬁes scalar ﬁeld scale sector simple solution space-time spinor Standard Model string theory Suggested reading supergravity superpotential supersymmetry breaking two-dimensional Type II theory vanishes vertex operators world sheet Yang–Mills zero modes
Page 40 - Now, one can evaluate the matrix element, using eA+B = eAeB-(l/2)[A,B] (provided that the commutator is a c-number), giving (2.35) where c is a numerical constant. So the overlap vanishes with the volume. You can convince yourself that the same holds for matrix elements of local operators. This result does not hold in 0 + 1 and 1 + 1 dimensions, because of the severe infrared behavior of theories in low dimensions. This is known to particle physicists as Coleman's theorem, and to condensed matter...