The scope of ecology. The ecosystem. Energy in ecological sytems. Biogeochemical cycles. Limiting factors and the physical environment. Population dynamics. Populations in communities. Development and evolution in the ecosystem. The predicament of humankind: futuristics. Brief description of major natural ecosystem types of the biosphere.
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adapted agriculture algae animals aquatic atmosphere autotrophic bacteria beneﬁt biological biomass biome biosphere biotic birds carbon Chapter chemical climate components concentration consumers crop culture curve cycle deﬁnite density desert detritus diagram diversity ecological ecologists ecosys ecosystem energy ﬂow energy quality environment environmental example fertile ﬁeld ﬁgure ﬁre ﬁrst ﬁsh food chain food energy forest fossil fuels function gradient grassland grazing growth habitat herbivores heterotrophic human important increase input insects interaction K-selection kcal lakes land limiting factors materials metabolism microorganisms natural nitrogen nutrients ocean Odum organic matter oxygen parasites percent phosphorus photosynthesis phytoplankton plankton plants pollution pond population predators primary production radiation rainfall ratio recycling reduced regions respiration saprotrophs seasonal Section sediments shown in Figure soil solar species speciﬁc Table temperature terrestrial tion trees trophic levels types United vegetation watershed yield zone zooplankton