Inferring Modern Human Migration Patterns Within Africa Using Calibrated Mitochondrial and Y-chromosomal DNA.
ProQuest, 2009 - 140 pages
The aim of this thesis is to characterize African population genetic structure, with a focus on eastern and southern Africa, and relate the inferred population history to linguistic patterns and the archaeological record. The substructure of African populations has major implications for hypotheses regarding behaviorally modern human origins. If behavioral modernity was caused by a relatively small number of genetic mutations as has been proposed, then knowledge of African population substructure constrains the timing and process of a selective sweep. Using a diverse set of populations from eastern Africa, I show that mitochondrial and Y-chromosomal data support a model of ancient divergence between African click-speaking populations with little recent gene flow. Evidence of recent gene flow between eastern and southern Africa is constrained to a migration of pastoralists about 2,000 years ago through Tanzania to the northern fringe of southern Africa.
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African populations agriculture allele analysis ancestral archaeological evidence Bantu Bantu-speaking populations behavioral modernity Burunge calibrated chromosome data clade click languages click-speaking populations coding region Cruciani dataset dates Datog demic diffusion demographic eastern Africa eastern and southern Europe European Figure Forster FOXP2 gene flow genealogy-based genome geographic groups Hadza and Sandawe haplogroups haplotypes high frequency Holocene homoplasy Howell hunter-gatherer HVRI hypervariable region indicate individuals inferred initial Khoisan Khwe Kxoe Last Glacial linguistic loci LOd lineages migration rates modern humans mtDNA mtDNA mutation rate mutation rate estimates neighboring Neolithic number of mutations Papua New Guinea pastoralist pedigree-based estimates phylogenetic phylogeny-based mutation rate population divergence population expansion population genetic Population growth rates population history recent region mutation rate SAK-speaking populations sample Sandawe populations sequence Skyline southern Africa studies suggest Sukuma Tanzania Tanzanian populations time-dependent Tishkoff TMRCA Underhill Upper Paleolithic within-human Y chromosome Y-chromosome Y-STR Y-STR haplotypes