Centuries of Childhood
In this pioneering and important book, Philippe Aries surveys children and their place in family life from the Middle Ages to the end of the eighteenth century. The first section of the book explores the gradual change from the medieval attitude to children, looked upon as small adults as soon as they were past infancy, to the seventeenth and eighteenth century awareness of the child as the focal point of family life. Aries goes on to examine the schooling of children and the development of modern educational methods. In the second section, he describes the metamorphosis of the family: at first the family was a unit in which everything was open and public and children mingled with adults in the social life of the community; eventually the family become a closed or private society, within which children had a unique and important status.
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The Discovery of Childhood
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academy adolescence adults already ancien regime apprenticeship arts authority became become beginning boarders boarding-school boys Cardinal d'Estouteville child common concept of childhood corresponded cycle dancing day-boys depicted discipline dress early eighteenth century engraving father festivals fifteenth fifth class France French girls give grammar school hand henceforth iconography idea Jacqueline Pascal Jesuit Jesuit college Latin school lessons little schools living longer Louis XIII lower classes manuals of etiquette masters medieval Middle Ages Mme de Sevigne modern moral moralists nineteenth century Oratorians painting parents Paris parlour games pedagogica pedagogues played Port-Royal portrait precocity punishment pupils putto reformation religious remained rhetoric class robe Sainte-Barbe scholars schoolboys servants seventeenth century shows sixteenth century social society statutes studies taught teaching teenth century theme Thomas Platter tion took town traditional tuition University of Paris writing young youth