Alcohol, Drugs of Abuse, and Immune Functions
Ronald R. Watson
CRC Press, May 4, 1995 - Medical - 288 pages
Substance abusers are an immunocompromised population, vulnerable to a wide array of new and resurgent infectious diseases - in spite of modern treatment. For example, opportunistic infections like tuberculosis are the principal cause of morbidity and mortality in HIV positive patients. Alcohol- and drug-induced disorders are wide-ranging, gaining prominence as the spectrum of emerging diseases broadens.
Alcohol, Drugs of Abuse, and Immune Functions reviews the role of these immunosuppressants as cofactors in disease. It covers the basic biology and immunology of impairments to defense against infectious disease. Alcohol and drug use is consistently associated with immunosuppression, although it isn't known if it is the substance itself, a metabolite, or an indirect effect that alters disease resistance. This text explores the advances toward answering this question, examines alcohol in different settings, its relationship to important cells, and the effects it can have on vital organs such as the liver and the lungs.
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The Effect of Alcohol on the Cellular Immune Function
Ardestani and Watson
T Cell Modulations in Human Alcoholics
acute ethanol adhesion alcohol exposure alcoholic hepatitis alcoholic liver disease alterations alveolar macrophages animals antibody antigen associated Biol CD4+ CD8+ T cells cell activity cell-mediated immunity cellular chronic alcohol cirrhosis Clin cocaine controls correlated corticosterone cytes cytokine cytokine production cytotoxic decreased depression diet effect of ethanol effects of alcohol elevated endothelial endotoxin enhanced ethanol ethanol exposure ethanol treatment EtOH consumption expression glucocorticoid helper cells hepatocytes HIV infection hormone immune function immune response immune system immunoglobulin Immunol immunosuppression impaired increased induced inhibition integrins interleukin Kupffer cells L-selectin leukocyte levels liver injury macrophages malnutrition mediated membrane mice mitogen molecules monocyte mRNA murine AIDS natural killer neutrophil patients with alcoholic peripheral blood pneumonia proliferation protein rats receptor regulation reported retroviral role serum significantly spleen splenocytes stimulation stress studies subsets suppression thymus tion tissue TNF-o tumor necrosis factor virus vitro vivo Watson Y-IFN