Obedience to authority: an experimental view
In the 1960s Yale University psychologist Stanley Milgram famously carried out a series of experiments that forever changed our perceptions of morality and free will. The subjects--or "teachers"--were instructed to administer electroshocks to a human "learner," with the shocks becoming progressively more powerful and painful. Controversial but now strongly vindicated by the scientific community, these experiments attempted to determine to what extent people will obey orders from authority figures regardless of consequences. "Obedience to Authority" is Milgram's fascinating and troubling chronicle of his classic study and a vivid and persuasive explanation of his conclusions.
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The Dilemma of Obedience
Method of Inquiry
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accept action administering shocks agentic aggressive answer Antecedent Conditions asked authority system automata behavior Bridgeport carried command compliance confederates conflict continue critical David Rosenhan defiant subjects defied the experimenter destructive disobedience Dontz effect electric chair electric shock ence experimenter's feel forces function Henry Wirz hierarchy human hurt indicated individual instructions Intensity Shock 21 interview jects Konrad Lorenz laboratory learning legitimate authority level of obedience Mean maximum shock mecha mechanisms ment menter Milgram moral naive subject Nazi Germany nervous obedience experiment obedient subjects obey the experimenter observed occur orders ordinary organization painful participants percent performance person procedure protests psychological punishment question reactions refuse relationship responsibility role Rosenblum shock level shocking the victim situation Social Psychology Stanley Milgram status strain Strong Shock structure superego switch teacher tension tion told voltage volts Ugh word pairs Yale Yale University