Confronting Evils: Terrorism, Torture, Genocide
In this contribution to philosophical ethics, Claudia Card revisits the theory of evil developed in her earlier book The Atrocity Paradigm (2002), and expands it to consider collectively perpetrated and collectively suffered atrocities. Redefining evil as a secular concept and focusing on the inexcusability - rather than the culpability - of atrocities, Card examines the tension between responding to evils and preserving humanitarian values. This stimulating and often provocative book contends that understanding the evils in terrorism, torture and genocide enables us to recognise similar evils in everyday life: daily life under oppressive regimes and in racist environments; violence against women, including in the home; violence and executions in prisons; hate crimes; and violence against animals. Card analyses torture, terrorism and genocide in the light of recent atrocities, considering whether there can be moral justifications for terrorism and torture, and providing conceptual tools to distinguish genocide from non-genocidal mass slaughter.
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abuse agents allen améry animals arendt argues aristotle arrigo Atrocity Paradigm basic biological biological warfare biological weapon bombings capacities chapter coercion model committed complicit concept convention crime criminal culpable cultural death penalty deed defense defenseless defined definition degrading dershowitz destroy destruction ecosystems enforced pregnancy essay ethics ethnic cleansing evil example film genocide group target model Holocaust human Hutu icrc idea individual inexcusable wrongs inflicted inhuman institutions intent interrogation intolerable harm justify Kant Kant’s killing kind lack lemkin lesser wrongs lives mass means military moral excuse murder Muslim natally alienated non-sentient one’s oppression organization pain perpetrators philosophical political potential practice prisoners punishment question rape rapists rawls reasonably foreseeable regarding relationships responsibility rules rwandan genocide sense serb sexual social death social vitality species sperm structural suffer telishment terrorism terrorist tion torture tutsi victims violate violence vulnerable war on terrorism waterboarding weapon women