Human Biodiversity: Genes, Race, and History

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Transaction Publishers, 2001 - Social Science - 321 pages
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Are humans unique? This simple question, at the very heart of the hybrid field of biological anthropology, poses one of the false of dichotomies--with a stereotypical humanist answering in the affirmative and a stereotypical scientist answering in the negative.

The "study "of human biology is different from the study of the biology of other species. In the simplest terms, people's lives and welfare may depend upon it, in a sense that they may not depend on the study of other scientific subjects. Where science is used to validate ideas--four out of five scientists preferring a brand of cigarettes or toothpaste--there is a tendency to accept the judgment as authoritative without asking the kinds of questions we might ask of other citizens' pronouncements.

In "Human Biodiversity, "Marks has attempted to distill from a centuries-long debate what has been learned and remains to be learned about the biological differences within and among human groups. His is the first such attempt by an anthropologist in years, for genetics has undermined the fundamental assumptions of racial taxonomy. The history of those assumptions from Linnaeus to the recent past--the history of other, more useful assumptions that derive from Buffon and have reemerged to account for genetic variation--are the poles of Marks's exploration.

 

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Contents

The Hierarchy
1
PATTERN AND PROCESS
3
LINNAEUS
6
BUFFON
7
LAMARCK
10
DARWIN
11
THE PLACE OF HUMANS IN NATURE
12
ANCHORING THE EMERGENCE OF HUMANS
18
GENOME STRUCTURE AND EVOLUTION IN THE GLOBIN GENES
143
THE COMPARISON OF GENETIC REGIONS
144
HEMOGLOBIN VARIATION IN THE HUMAN SPECIES
146
THALASSEMIA
147
GENETIC SCREENING
148
MODERN EUGENICS
150
HEREDITARIANISM
151
Human Diversity in the Light of Modern Genetics
157

EMERGENCE OF THE MODERN CULTURE THEORY
19
THE BIOLOGICAL AND SOCIAL HISTORY OF THE HUMAN SPECIES
22
Processes and Patterns in the Evolutionary History of Our Species
25
ADAPTATION STORIES
26
DISTURBING THE CONSERVATIVE NATURE OF HEREDITY
28
MEIOSIS
29
THE GENE POOL
32
MICROEVOLUTIONARY PROCESSES
33
MACROEVOLUTIONARY PROCESSES
37
EVOLUTIONARY NARRATIVES
38
HUMAN MACROEVOLUTION
40
LINKING DATA INTO HISTORIES
42
PATTERNS IN THE EVOLUTION OF SPECIES AND CULTURE
44
Physical Anthropology as the Study of Human Variation
49
NOTES
60
The History of Biology and the Biology of History
63
ARTHUR DE GOBINEAU
64
HISTORY BIOLOGY AND THE THEORY OF PROGRESS
66
BIOLOGICAL PROGRESS AS SOCIAL PROGRESS
68
PARALLEL PROGRESSIVE PROCESSES
69
PROGRESS IN HISTORY WITHOUT BIOLOGY
70
PROGRESS AS AN ILLUSION
71
THE CULTURE CONCEPT NUDGES OUT THE RACE CONCEPT
73
The Eugenics Movement
77
MENDELISM IN EUGENICS
80
THE PERIL OF THE HUDDLED MASSES
81
SCIENCE AND PSEUDOSCIENCE
86
EUGENICS IN NATIONAL SOCIALIST GERMANY
88
WHY EUGENICS FAILED
89
LESSONS FOR OUR TIME
92
6 Racial and Racist Anthropology
99
HUMAN DIVERSITY
101
RACIST STUDIES
102
RACIAL STUDIES
104
WHAT DO DIFFERENCES AMONG HUMAN GROUPS REPRESENT?
106
PERFORMANCE AND ABILITY
109
RACE AS A SOCIAL CONSTRUCT
110
THE LINNAEAN AND BUFFONIAN FRAMEWORKS
113
Patterns of Variation in Human Populations
117
THE SKULL IN RACIAL STUDIES
120
GENETICS AND THE HUMAN RACES
125
BLOOD GROUP ALLELE FREQUENCIES IN POPULATIONS
130
GENETICS OF THE HUMAN SPECIES
133
Human Molecular and Microevolutionary Genetics
137
THE GENOME
139
HEMOGLOBIN
142
DIFFERENCES AMONG THE THREE RACES
158
THE SOCIAL NATURE OF GEOGRAPHICAL CATEGORIES
161
PATTERNS OF GENETIC DIFFERENTIATION
165
MITOCHONDRIAL EVE
169
PATTERNS OF GENETIC DIVERSITY
172
THE GENETICS OF INDIVIDUALITY
173
THE HUMAN GENOME PROJECT
174
WHO IS RELATED TO WHOM?
176
The Adaptive Nature of Human Variation
183
PATTERNS OF GENE FLOW
185
ADAPTATION
187
GENETIC ADAPTATION
191
HUMAN VARIATION AS PHENOTYPIC ADAPTATION
193
NUTRITIONAL VARIATION
195
UNIQUENESSES OF HUMAN ADAPTATION
196
CULTURAL SELECTION
198
CULTURE AS A SOCIAL MARKER
199
Health and Human Populations
203
DEMOGRAPHIC TRANSITIONS
204
THE CULTURAL NATURE OF DISEASE
209
ETHNIC DISEASES
211
AIDS
213
CULTURE AS TECHNOLOGICAL FIX
215
Human Traits Heritage or Habitus?
219
AESOP AND DARWIN
220
SEX AND THE SINGLE FRUITFLY
224
RAPE AS HERITAGE OR HABITUS
226
PROXIMATE AND ULTIMATE CAUSE IN BIOLOGY
228
THE ASPHALT JUNGLE
231
HUMAN BEHAVIOR AS HERITAGE
232
Genetics and the Evolution of Human Behavior
237
COMPARING GROUPS OF PEOPLE
238
WHERE ARE THE GREAT JEWISH BOXERS?
240
HOW DO WE ESTABLISH THE GENETIC BASIS OF A BEHAVIOR?
243
THE GENETICS OF DEVIANCE
244
THE HEREDITARIAN JUMBLE
246
THE GENETIC BASIS OF SEXUAL DEVIANCE
250
HERE TODAY GONE TOMORROW
253
PLATONISM AND THE SEARCH FOR HUMAN NATURE
255
WAS HAMMERSTEIN WRONG?
258
RACE XENOPHOBIA AND THE LESSONS OF HISTORY
260
Conclusions
265
DNA Structure and Function
279
Index
314
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