Taxation in Modern China
Conflicting Identities and Multiple Masculinities takes as its focus the construction of masculinity in Western Europe from the early Middle Ages until the fifteenth century, crossing from pre-Christian Scandinavia across western Christendom. The essays consult a broad and representative cross section of sources including the work of theological, scholastic, and monastic writers, sagas, hagiography and memoirs, material culture, chronicles, exampla and vernacular literature, sumptuary legislation, and the records of ecclesiastical courts. The studies address questions of what constituted male identity, and male sexuality. How was masculinity constructed in different social groups? How did the secular and ecclesiastical ideals of masculinity reinforce each other or diverge? These essays address the topic of medieval men and, through a variety of theoretical, methodological, and disciplinary approaches, significantly extend our understanding of how, in the Middle Ages, masculinity and identity were conflicted and multifarious.
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CHINAS FISCAL DEFICITS 19861995
MARGINAL EFFECTIVE TAX RATES IN THE REFORMED TAX SYSTEM
CAN SEIGNIORAGE REVENUE KEEP CHINAS FINANCIAL SYSTEM AFLOAT?
CENTRALPROVINCIALLOCAL FISCAL RELATIONS
INTERGOVERNMENTAL FISCAL RELATIONS IN CHINA
FISCAL DUALISM IN CHINA
MARKETORIENTED ECONOMIC REFORM AND THE GROWTH
THE REFORM OF THE FISCAL TRANSFER SYSTEM
THE FUTURE OF MARKET SOCIALISM IN CHINA
ACCOUNTING IN CHINA
accounting reform allocation banking system Beijing budget budgetary revenue capital central bank central government changes China Statistical Yearbook collected contract costs currency decline deficit depreciation EBFs economic reform enterprise income tax enterprise taxes equalization expenditures extrabudgetary revenues fees financial repression Fiscal Decentralization Fiscal Federalism fiscal reform fiscal system Gao Qiang government revenue grants growth incentives increase industrial inflation rate inflation tax interest rate Intergovernmental Fiscal Relations International Monetary Fund investment levels of government levies loans macroeconomic market economy market socialism ment N-SOEs off-budget finance off-budget revenue output ownership percent of GDP production profits provinces public finance ratio regions retained earnings sector seigniorage seigniorage revenue share sight deposits social SOEs state-owned enterprises structure subsidies tax administration tax reform tax revenue tax system taxation tion transfers transition turnover taxes TVEs unprofitable value-added wage wage share Wong workers World Bank
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