The Catholic Church in Spain, 1875-1998
A comprehensive history of one of Spain's key institutions during a long and conflictive period. Generations of secular critics saw the modern Spanish Church as a monolithic, efficiently organized institution intent on imposing a highly traditional Catholicism on a society undergoing rapid social, economic and political change. However, the rise of liberalism, republicanism, socialism, anarchism and intellectual pluralism challenged the clergy's view that Spain had always been and would always be Catholic. The Church attempted to modernize its strategy by creating trade unions, an expanded school system, agrarian associations, and a modern confessional press, while maintaining its privileges as the established Church of the State until the proclamation of the Second Republic in 1931.
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A Church Transformed
The Church and the Restoration 18741901
Politics and the Church 19011912
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Andalucia Andres-Gallego Angel Herrera anticlerical archbishop associations Barcelona Basque bishops campaign Canalejas Canovas Cardinal Tarancon Carlists Catalan Catalonia Catholic Action Catholic opinion Catolica catolicismo century Christian civil clergy clerical Comillas commitment concordat conservative constitutional controversy crisis criticism Debate declared defend Despite developed dictatorship diocesan diocese dynastic parties ecclesiastical economic episcopal Espana espanola established Falange Frances Lannon Franco Garcia Gonzalez Herrera hierarchy hierarchy's Historia historic hostility Iglesia institutions Integrists Javier Tusell Jesuit Jose legislation liberal Madrid Maura modern monarchy moral movement National Catholicism nuncio official Opus Opus Dei organization papal parish priests pastoral letter percent Pla y Deniel politica political prime minister protest PSOE question reform regime regime's region religion religiosa religious orders Republic Republican Restoration Revista role Sagasta schools secular social Catholicism Socialist society Spain Spanish Catholicism Spanish Church syndicates tion Tragic Week unions Valencia Vatican Vicent Vidal i Barraquer workers