Rome's Holy Mountain: The Capitoline Hill in Late Antiquity
Rome's Capitoline Hill was the smallest of the Seven Hills of Rome. Yet in the long history of the Roman state it was the empire's holy mountain. The hill was the setting of many of Rome's most beloved stories, involving Aeneas, Romulus, Tarpeia, and Manlius. It also held significant monuments, including the Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus, a location that marked the spot where Jupiter made the hill his earthly home in the age before humanity. This is the first book that follows the history of the Capitoline Hill into late antiquity and the early middle ages, asking what happened to a holy mountain as the empire that deemed it thus became a Christian republic. This is not a history of the hill's tonnage of marble and gold bedecked monuments, but rather an investigation into how the hill was used, imagined, and known from the third to the seventh centuries CE. During this time, the imperial triumph and other processions to the top of the hill were no longer enacted. But the hill persisted as a densely populated urban zone and continued to supply a bridge to fragmented memories of an increasingly remote past through its toponyms. This book is also about a series of Christian engagements with the Capitoline Hill's different registers of memory, the transmission and dissection of anecdotes, and the invention of alternate understandings of the hill's role in Roman history. What lingered long after the state's disintegration in the fifth century were the hill's associations with the raw power of Rome's empire.
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AASS According ancient apostles Arnobius Augustine Augustine’s Augustus Basilica Byzantine Capitoline Hill Capitolium caput celebrated century bce chapter Christian chronicle church city of Rome city’s climb the Capitoline Coates-Stephens Constantine cult Curia Senatus dedicated Diocletian divine emperor Eusebius fifth Forum Romanum fourth century Fraschetti Gauls gesta God’s gods Greek Martyrs hill’s holy honor imagined imperial inscriptions Iouis itinerary Jerome Jerome’s Jupiter Optimus Maximus Jupiter’s Kaldellis Kapetōlion Lactantius Lanciani late antique late Roman Latin Liber Pontificalis Livy LP Duchesne Maria Maxentius Maximian memory Mirabilia urbis Romae Mommsen monuments Narses pagan Palatine Hill Paschoud Passio past Peter’s Pope procession Procopius Prudentius rites ritual Rome Rome’s Capitol sacrifice senators Servius shrine Sibyl siege sixth century sources statues story Tabularium Tacitus Tarpeia Tarpeian temple destructions Temple of Jupiter temple’s templum Tertullian Theotokos third century tion topography toponyms traditions triumph triumphal Vergil Zosimus