Plato's Theaetetus as a Second Apology
Zina Giannopoulou argues that Theaetetus—Plato's most systematic examination of knowledge—is a philosophically sophisticated elaboration of Apology that successfully differentiates Socrates from the sophists. In Apology Socrates defends his philosophical activity partly by distinguishing it from sophistic practices, and in Theaetetus he enacts this distinction: the self-proclaimed ignorant and pious Socrates of Apology poses as the barren practitioner of midwifery, an art that enjoys divine support, and helps his pregnant interlocutor to engender his ideas. Whereas sophistic expertise fills others' souls with items of dubious epistemic quality, Socratic midwifery removes, tests, and discards falsities. In Theaetetus Plato drapes the Socrates of Apology with obstetric garb and stages a philosophical contest between him and the seemingly wise men with whose definitions Theaetetus' soul teems, chief among whom is Protagoras. By proving the indefensibility of these definitions, Socrates challenges their authors' wisdom—since for him no one can justifiably be said to have knowledge if he cannot give an account of knowledge. On the other hand, his own inability to procure the definition he seeks confirms his assertion that he lacks wisdom. Giannopoulou goes on to explore how in Apology Socrates claims that his wisdom consists in his awareness of his lack of wisdom, and in Theaetetus he validates this claim: his attempt to discover what knowledge is, coupled with his intellectual barrenness, shows both that he does not have what he is looking for and why this is the case.
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another’s answer Apology argument assess Aviary awareness barrenness birds Burnyeat Charmides complex construal contrast Cratylus critique definition of knowledge dialogue digression distinguishing mark divine doctrine Dream elements elenchus elenctic entities epistemic eristic Euclides Euthydemus Euthyphro examination example expert expertise expression false belief false judgment falsity god’s godlikeness Gorgias Heracliteans Hippias Hippias Major human ignorance imprints intellectual interlocutors interpretation judge judger kind knowledge as perception knowledge as true koina letters means Meletus mental midwifery midwife motion Myles Burnyeat object obstetric one’s ontological opponents orator orator’s passage perceiver Phaedo Phaedrus philosophical pieces of knowledge Plato possessing predicates Prodicus Protagoras Protagorean public world puzzle question radical flux reference refutation Sedley self-refutation sense perception shows Socrates says Socratic midwifery sophist soul soul’s stage statement suggests syllables Theaetetus Theodorus theory things thought Timaeus true judgment truth verbal Waxen Tablet whereas wisdom wise words youth