Messianic Judaism: A Modern Movement with an Ancient Past
?In the first century of the Common Era, tens of thousands of Jewish people followed Yeshua (Jesus), believing him to be the promised Messiah of Israel. They didn't renounce their heritage, their customs, nor their people. They remained Jews. Two thousand years later, hundreds of thousands of Jewish people follow Yeshua, also believing that he is the Messiah. They, too, have not renounced their heritage, customs, nor their people. Messianic Judaism is the modern movement that is bringing it all together, for Jews and non-Jews.
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The best introduction to modern Messianic Judaism I found yet. Quite some typographical erros, it really could use a second edition.
Pleasantly opinionated, it takes its stands without trying to strongarming the reader into agreeing, but instead poses many questions it does not presume to answer.
I am left hoping a Reformed (Calvinist) Messianic Jew (or Hebrew Christian) will eventually produce a better yet book. But this one was quite informative and interesting already.
Stern has presented us with a vigorous and readable defense of Messianic Jewish thought. His differentiation between Israeli and American branches are appreciated. His sensitivity to the historical progression of Hebrew Christianity (with was instrumental to the foundation the Diocese of Jerusalem, of which I am a member) is also laudable.
The book has a number of typos and misspellings, which is odd since it is itself an edited and expanded version of an earlier book.
The main drawback of this book is his handling of biblical material. He spends a good amount of time countering replacement theology, which claims that the Church replaced ethnic Israel after the advent of Messiah as the covenant people of God. In this, he fails to deal with the more nuanced and (I think) compelling scholarship which proposes a fulfillment theology. He also rejects the interpretation that Jesus having fulfilled the Torah means it is no longer in effect. But that is to ignore another interpretation, which understands Jesus words as meaning that his ministry and his privileging of the prerogatives of the Kingdom of God over the Law of God (ie, healing on Shabbat) is what fulfills the Torah, in that the most profound reality of Torah is only brought out and completed and made full within the ethical and eschatological contours of the Kingdom life which Jesus taught. Such an interpretation would then see the Torah in the light of the Kingdom kerygma coming to fruition and pointing beyond itself–and beyond ethnic Israel to a reality open to ethnic Israel but larger than it. Whatever ethnic Israel was and is, it was and is only insofar as that earlier Israel inheres with the one, true Israel–Yeshua/Jesus. Matthew understood this well when he radically reappropriated Hosea’s historical recollection, “Out of Egypt I have called my son.”
Nor does he given an account of why he feels justified in connecting the secular State of Israel, proclaimed in 1948, with the Davidic Kingdom of Judah. He proposes that non-Jews should have rights ‘in the Land’ but not ‘to the Land’. But what if they owned the land for centuries and have the legal documents to prove it? The ethical issues related to occupation are very demanding, and the author barely touches on them. Nor does he specify what exactly the borders of ‘the Land’ are. These are pressing issues since Yeshua/Jesus had a great deal to say about justice and nothing to say about Jews politically controlling Palestine.
The author’s appeal to Arab Christians and Messianic Jews to listen to each other and learn from each other is laudable and appreciated. But his simultaneous zeal for Messianic Jews making Aliya (migration to Israel) is a bit difficult to square with that. What if, upon listening to Arab brothers and sisters, they come to realize that they don’t believe the Land really belongs to Jews, and the ‘right of return’ is unethical?
There is a battle going on right now for the hearts and minds of American and European evangelicals, without whom the continued existence of the State of Israel would be considerably more difficult. This book is a credible attempt to win them over, while also speaking to Messianc Jews about their own issues and problems and suggest constructive way froward for them, while also trying to convince non-Messianic Jews that Messianic Jews really are Jews. Regarding the first goal, I do not think most of his arguments succeed. Regarding the latter two, as someone who is a mere Messianic Gentile, it is not for me to say.
D A Miller