Spain and Portugal

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Graeme Mercer Adam
J. D. Morris, 1906 - Portugal - 574 pages
 

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Page 401 - Bay, either by way of restitution or cession ; and that both nations should continue to enjoy whatever territories they might be possessed of in North America at the ratification of the treaties. She likewise insisted upon a security that the crowns of France and Spain should never be united on the same head. Her majesty no longer insisted upon Philip's being expelled from the throne of Spain by the arms of his own grandfather. She...
Page 12 - ... the wars between the rival republics of Rome and Carthage, is too conjectural to deserve the name of historical, though some few facts are seen to glimmer through the profound darkness which surrounds them. The successful example of the Phoenicians stimulated the Greeks to pursue the same advantages. About eight or nine hundred years before Christ, the Rhodians arrived on the coast of Catalonia, and founded a town, which they called Rhodia (Rosas) from the name of their island. They were followed...
Page 98 - Notwithstanding the destructive wars which had prevailed near a century, neither Moors nor Christians had acquired much advantage by them. From the reduction of Saragossa to the present time, the victory, indeed, had generally declared for the Christians : but their conquests, with the exception of Lisbon and a few fortresses in central Spain, were lost almost as soon as gained ; and the same fate attended the equally transient successes of the Mohammedans. The...
Page 100 - ... them. The place stood out for several months, and did not surrender until the Emperor had sustained a heavy loss, nor until the season was too far advanced to permit any advantage to be derived from this partial success. By suspending the execution of his great design until the following season, he allowed Alfonso time to prepare for the contest. The following June, the kings of Leon and Castile having assembled at Toledo, and been joined by a considerable number of foreign volunteers, the Christian...
Page 322 - Portuguese spirit of . maritime enterprise was carried to a high pitch ; a spirit which, except in one instance,-)- he was always anxious to foster. His first care was to found a fort on the coast of Guinea, which had been discovered during the preceding reign, for the purpose of maintaining a permanent commercial intercourse with the natives. The barbarian king, who had entered into an alliance with the strangers, consented to the erection of the fortress. From this moment Portugal, or rather her...
Page 4 - Accordingly, we find that the mountains have ever been the strong-holds of independence. .Those of Wales, Scotland, Switzerland, Calabria, the Asturias, and Greece, are renowned as the cradles of national liberty. The arms of these people were simple, but formidable. Two lances, about three feet in length ; a short sword ; a pole, hooked at the end to seize the reins of horses ; and a sling, were the 'most usual weapons of the combatants on foot. The horsemen were distinguished by sabres, sometimes...
Page 101 - AH 608, the crusaders reached the mountainous chain which divides New Castile from Andalusia. They found not only the passes, but the summits of the mountains, occupied by the Almohades. To force a passage was impossible; and they even deliberated on retreating, so as to draw out, if possible, the enemy from positions so formidable, when a shepherd entered the camp of Alfonso and proposed to conduct the Christian army, by a path unknown to both armies, to the summit of this elevated chain — by...
Page 135 - ... forces from his son to make a final irruption into the Mohammedan territories. Both were granted ; and in laying waste the possessions of the enemy, he had the consolation of reflecting, that he had done great service to the church, and left another signal remembrance of his valor, before his departure.
Page 295 - ... death, the government should be vested in a regent, until she had a son capable of assuming the sovereignty ; that son, too, to be educated not in Castile but in Portugal. When that event happened, she had no child, — a circumstance that induced her husband to claim the crown in her right, and that filled the Portuguese with vexation. They were satisfied neither with their intended sovereign, Juan, nor with the regent, Leonora, the queenmother, whom the will of the late king appointed to that...
Page 89 - Thou wert indeed a true prophet," replied the self-accused father; "but what power could avert the decrees of fate?" It seemed as if fate had indeed resolved that this well-meaning but misguided prince should fall by his own obstinacy; for though his son advised him to seek the alliance of Alfonso, he refused to do so until that alliance could no longer avail him. He himself seemed to think that the knell of his departing greatness was about to sound; and the most melancholy images were present to...

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