Political Terrorism: A New Guide To Actors, Authors, Concepts, Data Bases, Theories, And Literature
While there is no easy way to define terrorism, it may generally be viewed as a method of violence in which civilians are targeted with the objective of forcing a perceived enemy into submission by creating fear, demoralization, and political friction in the population under attack. At one time a marginal field of study in the social sciences, terrorism is now very much in center stage. The 1970s terrorist attacks by the PLO, the Provisional Irish Republican Army, the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine, the Japanese Red Army, the Unabomber, Aum Shinrikyo, Timothy McVeigh, the World Trade Center attacks, the assault on a school in Russia, and suicide bombers have all made the term "terrorism" an all-too-common part of our vocabulary.
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39 Typologies of Terrorism 40 Actor-Based Typologies 43 Political-Orientation-
Based Typologies 45 Multidimensional Typologies 49 Purpose-Based
Typologies 50 The Place of Terrorism in Political Conflict 56 2. THEORIES 61
The Netherlands Organzation for Scientific Research (Z.W.O.) awarded a travel
grant to Professor Michael Stohl, which made collaboration possible on the
chapter on typologies. For the discussion of the data situation in the field of state
In collaboration with M. Stohl and P. A. F lemming INTRODUCTION While we
devoted considerable attention to both concepts and theories of terrorism in our
first Research Guide, for lack of space we omitted a chapter on typologies.
4 TYPOLOGIES OF TERRORISM Chalmers Johnson noted in 1978 that "there
are almost as many typologies of terrorism as there are analysts." While this is a
slight exaggeration, the implication that there has been little if any cumulative
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Terrorism: Reality of Invisible Balance of Power
In his book, Invisible Balance of Power, published in 2005, Sajjad Shaukat has taken present ‘different war’ as an interaction of ‘state terrorism’ led by the United States and the ‘group terrorism’ by the Al Qaeda or Islamic militants. A number of authors have written books about the 9/11 tragedy, but ground realities developed in accordance with the book. After seeing the main title, some people think that the book is against the US-led western allies, but without any prejudice, he has discussed both the sovereign and non-sovereign entities on parallel lines in this research-based book. On the one hand, he pointed out Al Qaeda’s ambush attacks, targeted killings, beheadings etc., while on the other, he mentioned special operations by the US forces in Afghanistan and Iraq, and CIA-tortures cells in various small countries. In this regard, missile strikes by the drones on Pakistan’s tribal areas and elsewhere amounts to state terrorism, which are being responded by the internal backlash. Shaukat proves that both the warring parties kill innocent civilians through ruthless terror.
Giving references of the power-theorists like Machiavelli, Morgentahu, Kissinger etc., Shaukat has written that power factor or use of force has failed in this different war which took origin from the privileged and unprivileged status quo.
Shaukat introduced new ideas about the issues relating to the Islamic ideology, Jihad, Western World, liberalism, power diplomacy on the Third World by the US-led major countries, globalization, harsh conditions by the IMF and World Bank, causes of suicide attacks etc.
Author’s future observations like a prolonged war, failure of military paradigm by the state actors, increase in US cost of war, more terrorism, failure of NATO in Afghanistan, plane plot in UK, the defeat of Israel in 2006 war by the Lebanon-based Hezbollah, international financial crisis, warlike situation between America and Iran, Syria and Israel including other developments like Israeli attacks on Palestinians, similar forms of state terrorism in the Indian-held Kashmir, occupation of Iraq’s areas by the Jihadists-ISIS (Islamic State in Iraq and Syria) proved correct.
Indicating the failure of coercive diplomacy, the author also predicted that that in case of a protracted war with the insurgents, the US bargaining leverage would reduce on small countries. It happens so, as North Korea, Venezuela, Iran, Pakistan, Uzbekistan, Cuba and Turkey have rejected American undue pressure on a number of issues and matters. Besides, Russia and China have stood together to cope with the US-dominated world order, and now, strongly favour a multi-polar world. America’s decision not to attack Syria in 2013 due to Moscow’s stand, and Russian control of Crimea might be cited as example.
Shaukat also gave positive suggestions to the US, but President Obama did not act upon. Therefore, war on terror has resulted into more implications, giving a blow to the larger economies of the US and other developed nations.
Emphasizing the solution of key disputes like Kashmir and Palestine which remains breeding grounds of terrorism, the book suggests that realism (power factor) must be reconciled with idealism, which is essential for world peace and geo-political interests of the US-led developed countries and those of the small countries also by reforming the system of the UN. Shaukat warns that otherwise, “Invisible Balance of Power” will culminate into “clash of civilizations.”
It is due to the present scenario of terrorism—which already pointed out by the author that the publisher reprinted the book after nine years.
Author: Sajjad Shaukat -ISBN, 9690019589
Published by: Ferozsons, 60 Shahrah-i-Quaid-i-Azam, Lahore, Pakistan
Publisher’s Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
DATA AND DATA BASES ON STATE AND NONSTATE TERRORISM
DATA AND DATA BASES ON NONGOVERNMENTAL TERRORISM
NONCOMPUTERBASED DATA BASES
JOURNALS AND INSTITUTES IN THE FIELD OF TERRORISM
Federal Republic of Germany
THE PLACE OF TERRORISM IN POLITICAL CONFLICT
TERRORISM AND POLITICAL VIOLENCE THEORY
COMMON WISDOM AND COMMON MYTHS ON TERRORISM
THEORIES OF REGIME TERRORISM
TERRORIST THEORIES OF TERRORISM
Materials for an Identification Theory of Insurgent Terrorism
TERRORISM AS SURROGATE WARFARE
CONSPIRACY THEORIES OF TERRORISM
COMMUNICATION THEORY OF TERRORISM
SOCIOLOGICAL THEORIES AND MODELS
International Environment Theories
Theories of Domestic Causation
THE LITERATURE OF TERRORISM
THE STATE OF THE ART
ESSENTIAL WORKS ON TERRORISM
Conceptual and Theoretical Works
Managing and Controlling Terrorism
Strategy of Terrorism
State and StateSupported Terrorism
Etiology of Terrorism
COMPUTER DATA BASES FOR BIBLIOGRAPHIC SEARCHES ON TERRORISM
Advantages of OnLine Searches
Major OnLine Data Bases for Political Terrorism
Other OnLine Data Bases
A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF POLITICAL TERRORISM
WORLD DIRECTORY OF TERRORIST AND OTHER ORGANIZATIONS ASSOCIATED WITH GUERRILLA WARFARE POLITICAL VIOLENC...
LITERATURE REFERRED TO
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Political Terrorism: A New Guide To Actors, Authors, Concepts, Data Bases ...
Albert J. Jongman
No preview available - 2005