Political Terrorism: A New Guide To Actors, Authors, Concepts, Data Bases, Theories, And Literature

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Transaction Publishers, 1988 - Political Science - 700 pages
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While there is no easy way to define terrorism, it may generally be viewed as a method of violence in which civilians are targeted with the objective of forcing a perceived enemy into submission by creating fear, demoralization, and political friction in the population under attack. At one time a marginal field of study in the social sciences, terrorism is now very much in center stage. The 1970s terrorist attacks by the PLO, the Provisional Irish Republican Army, the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine, the Japanese Red Army, the Unabomber, Aum Shinrikyo, Timothy McVeigh, the World Trade Center attacks, the assault on a school in Russia, and suicide bombers have all made the term "terrorism" an all-too-common part of our vocabulary.

This edition of Political Terrorism was originally published in the 1980s, well before some of the horrific events noted above. This monumental collection of definitions, conceptual frameworks, paradigmatic formulations, and bibliographic sources is being reissued in paperback now as a resource for the expanding community of researchers on the subject of terrorism. This is a carefully constructed guide to one of the most urgent issues of the world today.

When the first edition was originally published, Choice noted, "This extremely useful reference tool should be part of any serious social science collection." Chronicles of Culture called it "a tremendously comprehensive book about a subject that any who have anything to lose--from property to liberty, life to limbs--should be forewarned against."

Alex P. Schmid received his Ph.D. from the University of Zrich, Switzerland, and is a professor in the Department of Political Science at Leiden University. He is the coauthor, with Albert J. Jongman, of Soviet Military Interventions since 1945, available from Transaction. Albert J. Jongman is principal researcher for PIOOM, the Interdisciplinary Research Programme on Causes of Human Rights Violations, and has been a research assistant at the SIPRI in Sweden. He is the author of Monitoring Human Rights Violations (State Violence, State Terrorism, and Human Rights).Irving Louis Horowitz is Hannah Arendt Distinguished University Professor Emeritus of Sociology and Political Science at Rutgers University, and the chairman and editorial director of Transaction Publishers.

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Terrorism: Reality of Invisible Balance of Power
Naveed Ahmed
In his book, Invisible Balance of Power, published in 2005, Sajjad Shaukat has taken present ‘different war’ as an interaction of
‘state terrorism’ led by the United States and the ‘group terrorism’ by the Al Qaeda or Islamic militants. A number of authors have written books about the 9/11 tragedy, but ground realities developed in accordance with the book. After seeing the main title, some people think that the book is against the US-led western allies, but without any prejudice, he has discussed both the sovereign and non-sovereign entities on parallel lines in this research-based book. On the one hand, he pointed out Al Qaeda’s ambush attacks, targeted killings, beheadings etc., while on the other, he mentioned special operations by the US forces in Afghanistan and Iraq, and CIA-tortures cells in various small countries. In this regard, missile strikes by the drones on Pakistan’s tribal areas and elsewhere amounts to state terrorism, which are being responded by the internal backlash. Shaukat proves that both the warring parties kill innocent civilians through ruthless terror.
Giving references of the power-theorists like Machiavelli, Morgentahu, Kissinger etc., Shaukat has written that power factor or use of force has failed in this different war which took origin from the privileged and unprivileged status quo.
Shaukat introduced new ideas about the issues relating to the Islamic ideology, Jihad, Western World, liberalism, power diplomacy on the Third World by the US-led major countries, globalization, harsh conditions by the IMF and World Bank, causes of suicide attacks etc.
Author’s future observations like a prolonged war, failure of military paradigm by the state actors, increase in US cost of war, more terrorism, failure of NATO in Afghanistan, plane plot in UK, the defeat of Israel in 2006 war by the Lebanon-based Hezbollah, international financial crisis, warlike situation between America and Iran, Syria and Israel including other developments like Israeli attacks on Palestinians, similar forms of state terrorism in the Indian-held Kashmir, occupation of Iraq’s areas by the Jihadists-ISIS (Islamic State in Iraq and Syria) proved correct.
Indicating the failure of coercive diplomacy, the author also predicted that that in case of a protracted war with the insurgents, the US bargaining leverage would reduce on small countries. It happens so, as North Korea, Venezuela, Iran, Pakistan, Uzbekistan, Cuba and Turkey have rejected American undue pressure on a number of issues and matters. Besides, Russia and China have stood together to cope with the US-dominated world order, and now, strongly favour a multi-polar world. America’s decision not to attack Syria in 2013 due to Moscow’s stand, and Russian control of Crimea might be cited as example.
Shaukat also gave positive suggestions to the US, but President Obama did not act upon. Therefore, war on terror has resulted into more implications, giving a blow to the larger economies of the US and other developed nations.
Emphasizing the solution of key disputes like Kashmir and Palestine which remains breeding grounds of terrorism, the book suggests that realism (power factor) must be reconciled with idealism, which is essential for world peace and geo-political interests of the US-led developed countries and those of the small countries also by reforming the system of the UN. Shaukat warns that otherwise, “Invisible Balance of Power” will culminate into “clash of civilizations.”
It is due to the present scenario of terrorism—which already pointed out by the author that the publisher reprinted the book after nine years.
Author: Sajjad Shaukat -ISBN, 9690019589
Published by: Ferozsons, 60 Shahrah-i-Quaid-i-Azam, Lahore, Pakistan
Publisher’s Email: support@ferozsons.com.pk
www.@ferozsons.com.pk
 

Selected pages

Contents

POSTSCRIPT
130
DATA AND DATA BASES ON STATE AND NONSTATE TERRORISM
137
DATA AND DATA BASES ON NONGOVERNMENTAL TERRORISM
139
NONCOMPUTERBASED DATA BASES
150
JOURNALS AND INSTITUTES IN THE FIELD OF TERRORISM
153
CHRONOLOGIES
158
Federal Republic of Germany
159
United States
160

THE NORMATIVE QUESTION
25
ANOTHER DEFINITIONAL ATTEMPT
28
UNSOLVED CONCEPTUAL PROBLEMS OF TERRORISM
29
A SELECTION OF RECENT GOVERNMENTAL AND ACADEMIC DEFINITIONS
32
TYPOLOGIES
39
TYPOLOGIES OF TERRORISM
40
ACTORBASED TYPOLOGIES
43
POLITICALORIENTATIONBASED TYPOLOGIES
45
MULTIDIMENSIONAL TYPOLOGIES
49
PURPOSEBASED TYPOLOGIES
50
THE PLACE OF TERRORISM IN POLITICAL CONFLICT
56
THEORIES
61
TERRORISM AND POLITICAL VIOLENCE THEORY
62
COMMON WISDOM AND COMMON MYTHS ON TERRORISM
68
THEORIES OF REGIME TERRORISM
72
TERRORIST THEORIES OF TERRORISM
79
PSYCHOLOGICAL THEORIES
87
Materials for an Identification Theory of Insurgent Terrorism
92
TERRORISM AS SURROGATE WARFARE
98
CONSPIRACY THEORIES OF TERRORISM
101
COMMUNICATION THEORY OF TERRORISM
108
SOCIOLOGICAL THEORIES AND MODELS
111
International Environment Theories
112
Theories of Domestic Causation
118
CONCLUSION
127
Skyjacking
161
Middle East
163
Latin America
164
DATA REQUIREMENTS
174
THE LITERATURE OF TERRORISM
177
THE STATE OF THE ART
185
ESSENTIAL WORKS ON TERRORISM
186
Conceptual and Theoretical Works
187
Case Studies
189
Managing and Controlling Terrorism
190
Strategy of Terrorism
192
State and StateSupported Terrorism
193
International Terrorism
194
Etiology of Terrorism
196
Bibliographies
198
COMPUTER DATA BASES FOR BIBLIOGRAPHIC SEARCHES ON TERRORISM
199
Advantages of OnLine Searches
200
Major OnLine Data Bases for Political Terrorism
201
Other OnLine Data Bases
202
NOTES
207
A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF POLITICAL TERRORISM
237
WORLD DIRECTORY OF TERRORIST AND OTHER ORGANIZATIONS ASSOCIATED WITH GUERRILLA WARFARE POLITICAL VIOLENC...
485
LITERATURE REFERRED TO
493
INDEX
497

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Popular passages

Page 26 - Gramsci seems to mean a socio-political situation, in his terminology, a ,moment', in which the philosophy and practice of a society fuse or are in equilibrium; an order in which a certain way of life and thought is dominant, in which one concept of reality is diffused throughout society in all its institutional and private manifestations, informing with its spirit all taste, morality, customs, religious and political principles, and all social relations, particularly in their intellectual and moral...
Page 63 - This study takes as its point of departure the assumption that aggression is always a consequence of frustration. More specifically the proposition is that the occurrence of aggressive behavior always presupposes the existence of frustration and, contrariwise, that the existence of frustration always leads to some form of aggression.
Page 32 - Investigation (FBI) defines terrorism as 'the unlawful use of force or violence against persons or property to intimidate or coerce a government, the civilian population, or any segments thereof, in furtherance of political or social objectives...
Page 28 - Threat- and violence-based communication processes between terrorist (organization), (imperiled) victims and main targets are used to manipulate the main target (audience[s]), turning it into a target of terror, a target of demands, or a target of attention, depending on whether intimidation, coercion, or propaganda is primarily sought.
Page 32 - The threat or use of violence for political purposes by individuals or groups, whether acting for, or in opposition to, established governmental authority, when such actions are intended to shock, stun, or intimidate a target group wider than the immediate victims.
Page 34 - ... the use of violence for political ends and includes any use of violence for the purpose of putting the public or any section of the public in fear...
Page 99 - Terrorism, though now rejected as a legitimate mode of warfare by most conventional military establishments, could become an accepted form of warfare in the future. Terrorists could be employed to provoke international incidents, create alarm in an adversary's country, compel it to divert valuable resources to protect itself, destroy its morale, and carry out specific acts of sabotage.
Page 32 - International terrorist activities means any activity or activities which: (a) involves killing, causing serious bodily harm, kidnapping, or violent destruction of property, or an attempt or credible threat to commit such acts; and (b) appears intended to endanger a protectee of the Secret Service or the Department of State or to further political, social or economic goals by intimidating or coercing a civilian population or any segment thereof, influencing the policy of a government or international...
Page 37 - Political terrorism is the use or threat of use of violence by an individual or a group whether acting for or in opposition to established authority when such action is designed to create extreme anxiety and /or fear including effects in a target group larger than the immediate victims, with the purpose of coercing that group into acceding to the political demands of the perpetrators.
Page 28 - Terrorism is an anxiety-inspiring method of repeated violent action, employed by (semi) clandestine individual, group or state actors, for idiosyncratic, criminal or political reasons, whereby - in contrast to assassination - the direct targets of violence are not the main targets. The immediate human victims of violence are generally chosen randomly (targets of opportunity) or selectively (representative or symbolic targets) from a target population, and serve as message generators.

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