Civilian Devastation: Abuses by All Parties in the War in Southern Sudan

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Human Rights Watch, Jan 1, 1994 - Political Science - 279 pages
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Since 1983, the civil war in southern Sudan has claimed the lives of some 1.3 million civilians as a result of targeted killings, indiscriminate fire, or starvation and disease. Both government and rebel forces are culpable as they wage war in total disregard for the welfare of civilians, violating almost every rule of war applicable in an internal armed conflict. Government forces have engaged in indiscriminate aerial bombardments, scorched each tactics, torture, disapperance and summary executions. The two factions of the rebel Sudan People's Liberation Army have engaged in indiscriminate attacks, destruction of property, looting, and long-term sieges that starve civilians. The cumulative effect has been to turn Sudan's southern region into a permanent emergency situation where war, flood, drought, and disease have torn apart ordinary survival strategies and made millions dependent in whole or in part on international assistance.
 

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Contents

Government Offensive from Malakal South in MarchApril 1992
40
Government and SPLANasir Attacks in Bahr El Ghazal in 1992
43
Indiscriminate Government Bombing and the Capture of Kapoeta and Torit in 1992
45
GOVERNMENT ABUSES BEFORE AND DURING THE BATTLE FOR JUBA 1992
49
Abuses During the 199192 School Strike and Civic Struggle
50
GOVERNMENT ABUSES FOLLOWING JUNEJULY 1992 SPLATORIT ATTACKS ON JUBA
56
Summary Executions Disappearances Arrests and Mass Displacement
58
Government Execution and Disappearance of International Aid Employees
60
Government Accountability for Killings and Disappearances
62
Detention and Deportation of Clergy
64
Forcible Displacement of Civilians into Inadequate Conditions
65
Law on Forced Displacement
68
Prohibition on Targeted Land Mine Attacks on Civilians
69
GOVERNMENT ABUSES IN 1993
70
Bor
73
Indiscriminate Government Bombing in 1993
74
Government Offensive in Western Equatoria from JulyAugust 1993
76
Bombing in Late 1993
79
INDISCRIMINATE GOVERNMENT BOMBING IN THE 1994 DRY SEASON CAMPAIGN
80
LEGAL STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO BOMBING AND SHELLING
85
IV SPLA VIOLATIONS OF THE RULES OF WAR
90
SPLA FACTION FIGHTING IN UPPER NILE PROVINCE FROM 19911992
91
Killings and Looting During SeptemberOctober 1991
92
SPLATorit Attack on Adok Upper Nile
96
Fighting Resumes After First CeaseFire in 1991
99
SPLATorit Accountability for the Counterattack
106
SPLANasir Attacks in Bahr El Ghazal in 1992
107
SPLATorit Counterattack on Nasir Territory in Early 1992
108
Fighting in Upper Nile in mid1992
110
ABUSES IN EQUATORIA DURING 1992
112
Siege of Garrison Towns by the SPLATorit and the Prohibition on Starvation of Civilians as a Method of Combat
121
Abuses Committed during William Nyuons Defection from SPLATorit and Associated Fighting in Equaloria in late 1992
127
VILLAGE BURNINGS IN EQUATORIALIN EARLY 1993
136
The Didinga of Chukudum
141
FACTION FIGHTING IN 1993 IN THE UPPER NILE
146
Pariang 1993 Kala Azar Epidemic Worsened by Nuer and Government Raids
149
Kuac Deng Attacked by SPLATorit Twice in Early 1993
151
Panyakur and Kongor Occupied by SPLANasir in Late 1992
152
Duk Faiwil Attacked by SPLANasir in FebruaryMarch 1993
155
Kongor Captured by SPLATorit on March 27 1993
156
Accountability of SPLATorit for Deaths and Injuries in Kongor Attack
158
Pagau Attacked Again by SPLATorit in June 1993
172
Tip Village Attacked by SPLATorit in June 1993
173
SPLA FOOD POLICIES ABUSIVE OF THE CIVILIAN POPULATION
174
Background
175
Stealing Food from Civilians
177
Looting from Civilians Under Enemy Control
178
Forced Farm Labor
179
Ugandans Used for Farm Labor in Khor Shum Pakok
180
Taxation or Requisition of Food from Farmers
181
Requisition of Food from Emergency Relief Recipients
183
Diversion and Stealing of Relief Supplies
184
Yuai
185
FORCED RECRUITMENT
189
Forced Portering
192
Historical Background
193
UNACCOMPANIED MINORS AND RECRUITMENT OF CHILD SOLDIERS
195
SPLATorit Position on Recruitment of Minors
197
Rationale for Segregation of Unaccompanied Minors
198
Conditions in the Ethiopian Refugee Camps
204
Emergency Evacuation of Unaccompanied Minors Along With Sudanese Refugees from Ethiopia
208
Conditions for Unaccompanied Minors Repatriated to Sudan from Ethiopia
209
Military Training and Forced Recruitment of Boys Inside Sudan
218
Conditions in Nasir and Status of Family Reunification Program and Schooling
219
Minority Minors
222
SUMMARY EXECUTIONS DISAPPEARANCES AND TORTURE
224
Torture
226
Prolonged Arbitrary Detention and Torture of LongTerm Prisoners
228
Prolonged Arbitrary Detention and Torture of Ugandan Prisoners by SPLATorit
235
Other Arbitrary Detention
238
SPLA ADMINISTRATION OF JUSTICE
239
The SPLA Code
242
Due Process Lacking in Procedure and Investigations
243
No Independent Tribunal
245
Capital Punishment
247
Accountability
250
V RECOMMENDATIONS
253
SUDAN GOVERNMENT
254
SPLATORIT AND SPLANASIRUNITED
255
APPLICATION OF THE RULES OF WAR TO THE CONFLICT IN SUDAN
257
Copyright

Common terms and phrases

Popular passages

Page 259 - Persons taking no active part in the hostilities, including members of armed forces who have laid down their arms and those placed hors de combat by sickness, wounds, detention, or any other cause...
Page 268 - ... an attack which may be expected to cause incidental loss of civilian life, injury to civilians, damage to civilian objects, or a combination thereof, which would be excessive in relation to the concrete and direct military advantage anticipated.
Page 258 - Convention shall apply to all cases of declared war or of any other armed conflict which may arise between two or more of the High Contracting Parties, even if the state of war is not recognized by one of them.
Page 192 - January 1951 and owing to a wellfounded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group or political opinion, is outside the country of his nationality and is unable or, owing to such fear, is unwilling to avail himself of the protection of that country...
Page 68 - Ordering the displacement of the civilian population for reasons related to the conflict, unless the security of the civilians involved or imperative military reasons so demand; ix.
Page 258 - In the case of armed conflict not of an international character occurring in the territory of one of the High Contracting Parties, each Party to the conflict shall be bound to apply, as a minimum, the following provisions: (1) Persons taking no active part in the hostilities, including members of armed forces who have laid down their arms and those placed hors de combat...
Page 271 - Protection of objects indispensable to the survival of the civilian population 1. Starvation of civilians as a method of warfare is prohibited. 2. It is prohibited to attack, destroy, remove or render useless objects indispensable to the survival of the civilian population, such as foodstuffs, agricultural areas for the production of foodstuffs, crops, livestock, drinking water installations and supplies and irrigation works...
Page 259 - ... violence to life and person, in particular murder of all kinds, mutilation, cruel treatment and torture; (b) taking of hostages; (c) outrages upon personal dignity, in particular humiliating and degrading treatment; (d) the passing of sentences and the carrying out of executions without previous judgment pronounced by a regularly constituted court, affording all the judicial guarantees which are recognized as indispensable by civilized peoples.
Page 270 - Indiscriminate attacks are prohibited. Indiscriminate attacks are: a) those which are not directed at a specific military objective; b) those which employ a method or means of combat which cannot be directed at a specific military objective...
Page 119 - Civilian objects are all objects which are not military objectives as defined in paragraph 2. 2. Attacks shall be limited strictly to military objectives. In so far as objects are concerned, military objectives are limited to those objects which by their nature, location, purpose or use make an effective contribution to military action...

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