Freedom: Volume 3, Series 1: The Wartime Genesis of Free Labour: The Lower South: A Documentary History of Emancipation, 1861-1867
Ira Berlin, Thavolia Glymph
Cambridge University Press, 1982 - History - 976 pages
Union occupation of parts of the Confederacy during the Civil War forced federal officials to confront questions about the social order that would replace slavery. This volume of Freedom presents a documentary history of the emergence of free-labor relations in the large plantation areas of the Union-occupied Lower South. The documents illustrate the experiences of former slaves as military laborers, as residents of federally sponsored "contraband camps," as wage laborers on plantations and in towns, and in some instances, as independent farmers and self-employed workers. Together with the editors' interpretative essays, these documents portray the different understandings of freedom advanced by the many participants in the wartime evolution of free labor--former slaves and free blacks; former slaveholders; Union military officers and officials in Washington; and Northern planters, ministers and teachers. The war sealed the fate of slavery only to open a contest over the meaning of freedom. This volume documents an important chapter of that contest. Ira Berlin is the Director of the Freedmen and Southern Society Project, University of Maryland.
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abandoned acres army authority Beaufort black soldiers Brig Capt charge clothing colored commander Commission Commissioners contraband camps contract corn cotton crop cultivation Davis Bend Dept District dollars Eaton emancipation employed employers employment estates families federal former slaves free labor Freedmen Freedmen's Bureau Freedom freedpeople furnished Genl Government Gulf hands Helena Hilton Head instructions issued John Eaton land large number leased plantations lessees Letters Received Lorenzo Thomas Louisiana masters Memphis military laborers month mules negroes Northern officers Orleans overseer owners paid Parish persons plantations planters planting Port Royal protection Provost Marshal rations rebel regiment regulations residents respectfully River Rufus Saxton Saxton Sea Islands Secretary Secretary of War Sherman slaveholders slavery slaves South Carolina Southern Special Agent sugar Superintendent supervision Tennessee Thomas Treasury Department troops Union Union army Union-occupied Vicksburg wages women