I am a man!: race, manhood, and the civil rights movement
The civil rights movement was first and foremost a struggle for racial equality, but questions of gender lay deeply embedded within this struggle. Steve Estes explores key groups, leaders, and events in the movement to understand how activists used race and manhood to articulate their visions of what American society should be. Estes demonstrates that, at crucial turning points in the movement, both segregationists and civil rights activists harnessed masculinist rhetoric, tapping into implicit assumptions about race, gender, and sexuality. Estes begins with an analysis of the role of black men in World War II and then examines the segregationists, who demonized black male sexuality and galvanized white men behind the ideal of southern honor. Later, he explores the militant new models of manhood espoused by civil rights activists and groups such as Malcolm X, the Nation of Islam, the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee, Martin Luther King Jr., and the Black Panther Party. Reliance on masculinist organizing strategies had both positive and negative consequences, Estes concludes. Tracing these strategies from the integration of the U.S. military in the 1940s through the Million Man March in the 1990s, he shows that masculinism rallied men to action but left unchallenged many of the patriarchal assumptions that underlay American society.
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Man the Guns
A Question of Honor
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Aaron Henry African American argued began Beifuss black and white black community black family black male black manhood Black Panther Party black soldiers black women Bobby Seale campaign Carter Citizens civil rights activists civil rights leaders civil rights movement Council defend Eldridge Cleaver federal fight folder Freedom Summer gender guns honor integration interracial interview with author Johnson labor liberation Malcolm Malcolm X March Martin Luther King masculinist masculinity McLaurin memo Memphis militant military ministers Mississippi Moynihan Report Muhammad Speaks Muslim naacp Nation of Islam Negro Family nonviolent officers OHRO organization police political Port Chicago programs Promise Keepers protest race racial racism recruits revolutionary rhetoric River I Stand role sanitation strike sanitation workers segregation segregationists sexual sncc SNCC Papers social South southern white speech strategy struggle veterans violence volunteers vote white male supremacy white supremacy white women Wirtz Papers woman wrote
Science-fiction Studies, Volume 34, Issue 2
Snippet view - 2007
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