Citrus: The Genus Citrus
Giovanni Dugo, Angelo Di Giacomo
CRC Press, Dec 29, 2003 - Science - 656 pages
The world production of citrus fruit has risen enormously, leaping from forty-five million tons a year to eighty-five million in the last 30 years. Today, the potential applications of their essential oils are growing wider, with nearly 40% of fresh produce processed for industrial purposes.
Citrus: The Genus Citrus offers comprehensive coverage on all aspects of the botany, cultivation, processing industry, chemistry and uses of Citrus and its oils. It describes the different citrus species; their environmental, geographical, and historical context; and their chemical composition and properties in detail. Following a chapter on citrus juice technology, the international panel of contributors describe the stages of preparation and processing methods of the juice, from cold extraction and distillation to the use of supercritical fluids, and the chemical reactions involved. The authors also discuss by-products, quality control, world markets, and regulations in the industry, and how analytical methods, such as mass spectrometry and HPLC, are used to characterize the Citrus essential oils.
Citrus: The Genus Citrus explores the current and future applications of Citrus oils, which include flavorings for alcohol, soft drinks, food, as well as fragrances for cosmetics and beauty products. Authors also discuss the therapeutic properties of these oils in traditional medicine and modern pharmaceuticals. Anyone involved in food sciences, pharmaceutical sciences, cosmetics, and plant sciences will no doubt find this volume to be of great value and interest.
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acid Agric Agrum alcohol aldehydes analysis aroma bergamot oil bergapten bitter orange bitter orange oil Calvarano camphene capillary column coated cent chemical chromatogram citron citronellal citronellol citrus essential oils citrus fruit citrus oils Citrus species components composition compounds concentration Cotroneo coumarins cultivars d-limonene decanal Dugo etal enantiomeric distribution essential oils Essenz etal extractor Flav flavour flowers Food Chem GC on capillary GC/MS geranial geraniol geranyl acetate Giacomo grapefruit oil hydrate industry Italy leaf oil lemon oil lime oil limonene linalool linalyl acetate mandarin oil methyl Mondello etal Monoterpene monoterpene hydrocarbons Mosandl myrcene neral nerol neryl acetate nonanal octanal oil extracted oil obtained orange oil oxide p-cymene peak areas pectin peel oil percentage of peak petitgrain petitgrain oils present production psoralens relative percentage reported sabinene samples Sesquiterpene sweet orange oil Table tangerine temperature terpenes terpinen-4-ol terpinolene tr tr tr trace amounts Verzera volatile fraction
Page xiv - Chondrodendron, and the antimalarials derived from species of Cinchona and Artemisia. The methods of detection of pharmacological activity have become increasingly reliable and specific, frequently involving enzymes in bioassays and avoiding the use of laboratory animals. By using bioassay linked fractionation of crude plant juices or extracts, compounds can be specifically targeted which, for example, inhibit blood platelet aggregation, or have antitumour, or antiviral, or any other required activity....
Page v - Volume 17 Tea, edited by Yong-su Zhen Volume 18 Artemisia, edited by Colin W. Wright Volume 19 Stevia, edited by A. Douglas Kinghorn Volume 20 Vetiveria, edited by Massimo Maffei Volume 21 Narcissus and Daffodil, edited by Gordon R. Hanks Volume 22 Eucalyptus, edited by John JW Coppen Volume 23 Pueraria, edited by Wing Ming Keung Volume 24 Thyme, edited by E. Stahl-Biskup and F. Saez Volume 25 Oregano, edited by Spiridon E. Kintzios Volume 26 Citrus, edited by Giovanni Dugo and Angelo Di Giacomo...
Page v - Kren and Ladislav Cvak Volume 7 Caraway, edited by Eva Nemeth Volume 8 Saffron, edited by Moshe Negbi Volume 9 Tea Tree, edited by Ian Southwell and Robert Lowe Volume 10 Basil, edited by Raimo Hiltunen and Yvonne Holm Volume 1 1 Fenugreek, edited by Georgios Petropoulos Volume 12 Ginkgo biloba, edited by Teris A.
Page xiv - ... used. The transfer of sections of DNA is giving rise to controversy in the case of some end-uses of the plant material. Some suppliers of plant raw material are now able to certify that they are supplying organically-farmed medicinal plants, herbs and spices.
Page v - ... of industrial importance. Edited by Dr Roland Hardman Volume 1 Valerian, edited by Peter J. Houghton Volume 2 Perilla, edited by He-ci Yu, Kenichi Kosuna and Megumi Haga Volume 3 Poppy, edited by Jeno Bernath Volume 4 Cannabis, edited by David T.
Page xiv - The plant raw materials are roots, rhizomes, bulbs, leaves, stems, barks, wood, flowers, fruits and seeds. These yield gums, resins, essential (volatile) oils, fixed oils, waxes, juices, extracts and spices for medicinal and aromatic purposes. All these commodities are traded world-wide. A dealer's market report for an item may say "Drought in the country of origin has forced up prices". Natural products do not mean safe products and account of this has to be taken by the above industries, which...
Page 1 - Medicine and this office in 1994 assisted the filing of several Investigational New Drug (IND) applications, required for clinical trials of some Chinese herbal preparations. The significance of these applications was that each Chinese preparation involved several plants and yet was handled as a single IND. A demonstration of the contribution of efficacy, of each ingredient of each plant, was not required.
Page xiv - Natural products do not mean safe products and account of this has to be taken by the above industries, which are subject to regulation. For example, a number of plants which are approved for use in medicine must not be used in cosmetic products. The assessment of safe to use starts with the harvested plant material which has to comply with an official monograph. This may require absence of, or prescribed limits of, radioactive material, heavy metals, aflatoxin, pesticide residue, as well as the...
Page 1 - ... plants and yet was handled as a single IND. A demonstration of the contribution to efficacy, of each ingredient of each plant, was not required. This was a major step forward towards more sensible regulations in regard to phytomedicines. My thanks are due to the...
Page xiv - Fascinating plant folklore and ethnopharmacology leads to medicinal potential. Examples are the muscle relaxants based on the arrow poison, curare, from species of Chondrodendron, and the antimalarials derived from species of Cinchona and Artemisia. The methods of detection of pharmacological activity have become increasingly reliable and specific, frequently involving enzymes in bioassays and avoiding the use of laboratory animals. By using bioassay-linked fractionation of crude plant juices or...