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abnormal abolish acupuncture amputation anaesthetic block analgesic areas behaviour body brain brainstem causalgia central biasing mechanism central nervous system clinical cognitive concept cordotomy cortex cutaneous decrease dorsal column dorsal horns drugs effect electrical stimulation evidence excitation Figure firing free nerve-endings Frey's gate-control theory increase influence inhibition inhibitory injection injury large fibres lesions limbic system Livingston Melzack and Wall modulation nerve fibres nerve impulses neuralgias neurons Noordenbos normal noxious stimuli observed pain experience pain mechanisms pain perception pain relief pathological pain pathways patterns of nerve peripheral nerve persists phantom limb pain physiological pin prick placebo pressure processes produce pain projection system prolonged proposed psychological qualities receptive fields receptor-fibre units referred pain relief of pain response reticular formation sensation sensory input severe pain skin small fibres somatosensory spatial specific spinal cord stump subserved substantia gelatinosa suggestion summation surgical temporal thalamus theory of pain threshold tion tissues touch transmission trigger zones