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Introduction to the Invertebrates
General Works for Additional Readings
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abdomen aboral adapted adult animal annelids antennae anus appendages aquatic arachnids arms arthropods bears benthic bivalves blood body wall bryozoans burrowing canal cells chelicerates choanocytes ciliated cleavage cnidarians cnidocytes coelom colony crustaceans ctenidia cuticle digestive dioecious dorsal duct echinoderms eggs elongate epidermis eyes feeding female Figure flagellates freshwater function gametes gastropods gastrovascular cavity gills glands gonads gonopore habitats hemocoel host ingested insects internal intestine invertebrates larva larval stage lateral layer legs located locomotion longitudinal lophophore male mantle cavity marine medusa membrane metamerism metazoans molluscs molts mouth mouthparts muscles nematodes nerve cord opisthosoma oral Order organs ossicles pairs parasitic pharynx phyla phylum planktonic polychaetes polyp posterior present primitive proboscis protostomates protozoans pseudocoelom radial reproductive segments sensory septa shell species sperm spiders spines sponges Subclass surface taxa tentacles terrestrial thoracic tion tissues trunk tube turbellarians typically usually valves ventral visceral wings worms