## Early Scientific Computing in BritainThis book is a study of how scientific computation developed in British universities, the scientific civil service, and the armed services during the period 1900-1950. It describes the emergence of computing laboratories in Britain, along with the machines and personalities involved. British computational work is examined from an organizational perspective and the concept of centralized computing power is discussed. Computing methods used up to the 1950s ranged from the use of mathematical tables, via slide rules and other mathematical instruments, to desk calculating machines, accounting machines, differential analysers, and early computers. |

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### Contents

The Nautical Almanac Office as a computing centre and | 38 |

the emergence of government | 61 |

a national computing centre | 89 |

Copyright | |

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Adding and Listing analogue analyser at Manchester applied Arithmometer Britain British Astronomical Association Brunsviga Burroughs Cambridge Mathematical Laboratory Cambridge University carried Central Mathematical Station computing facilities computing laboratory computing machinery computing machines computing methods Computing Section computing staff Comrie Comrie's construction crossfooter desk calculating machines desk machines device Differential Analyser Section differential equations DSIR EDSAC end-figures Engineering equipment External Ballistics Fairthorne function value Hartree Hollerith punched card interpolation Lennard-Jones listing machine logarithms Mallock Machine Manchester University Mathematical Tables Committee mathematicians Ministry of Supply model differential analyser National Accounting Machine national computing centre National Physical Laboratory Nautical almanac NPL Mathematics Division numerical analysis Office operation performed Pilot ACE planimeters problems programming proposed published punched card installation punched card machines Punched Card Section research establishments Royal Society Sadler scientists second differences slide rule SRE Department tabulator techniques Todd trigonometrical functions University Mathematical Laboratory users Wilkes Womersley