## The Ecological Implications of Body SizeIt is generally recognized that larger animals eat more, live longer, have larger offspring, and so on; but it is unusual to see these commonplace observations as a basis for scientific biology. A large number of empirically based relationships describe biological rates as simple functions of body size; and other such relations predict the intrinsic rate of population growth, animal speed, animal density, territory size, prey size, physiology, and morphology. Such equations almost always exist for mammals and birds, often for other vertebrates and invertebrates, sometimes for protozoa, algae, and bacteria, and occasionally even for plants. There are too many organisms to measure all aspects of the biology of every species of population, so scientists must depend on generalizations. Body size relations represent our most extensive and powerful assemblage of generalizations, but they have never been organized for use in ecology. This book represents the largest single compilation of interspecific size relations, and instructs the reader on the use of these relationships; their comparison, combination, and criticism. Both strengths and weaknesses of our current knowledge are discussed in order to indicate the many possible directions for further research. This important volume will therefore provide a point of departure toward a new applied ecology, giving quantitative solutions to real questions. It will interest advanced students of ecology and comparative physiology as well as professional biologists. |

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### Contents

A philosophical introduction | 1 |

Daily sleep and body size in herbivorous mammals | 2 |

Scientific crisis in ecology | 8 |

A mathematical primer Logarithms power curves and correlations | 10 |

Regression analysis | 15 |

Metabolism | 24 |

Respiration | 25 |

Interpretations and implications | 39 |

Production Growth and reproduction | 118 |

Population production | 133 |

An individual production term for the balanced growth equation | 139 |

Mass flow | 147 |

The autecology of material flows | 148 |

Nutrients and nutrient turnover | 158 |

Animal abundance | 164 |

The numerical density of individual species | 165 |

Physiological correlates of size | 45 |

Mammalian models of respiratory and circulatory physiology | 48 |

Temperature and metabolic rate | 54 |

A regression model | 55 |

The estimation of body temperature | 56 |

The effects of ambient temperature | 57 |

Other factors and other processes | 76 |

Locomotion | 79 |

Speeds of locomotion | 86 |

Transport costs | 90 |

Moving metabolic rates | 95 |

Ingestion | 100 |

Some basic properties | 101 |

Other factors | 106 |

Prey size | 108 |

Home range area | 170 |

Community size structure | 173 |

Other allometric relations | 184 |

Ecological economics | 187 |

Evolution | 192 |

Allometric simulation models | 197 |

The basic model | 198 |

Explanations | 213 |

Some allometric explanations | 215 |

Prospectus | 227 |

Appendixes | 231 |

297 | |

325 | |

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### Common terms and phrases

allometric relations ambient temperature analysis Appendix approximately average balanced growth equation basal metabolic rate basal rate behavior biological biomass birds Blueweiss Body mass kg body size relations body temperature calculated carnivores chapter classes confidence limits critical temperature curves decline defecation density detritivores ecological ecosystem effect energy estimates excretion exponent Figure fish heat loss herbivores home range homeotherms implies increase individual ingestion rate insects invertebrates large species large-prey eaters larger animals less logarithmic lower critical mammalian mammals nutrient organisms physiological poikilotherms population population density predator predictions prey production regression analysis regression line relationships reptiles respiration rise scaling similar slope small species smaller specific dynamic action speed standard metabolic rate suggest swimming Table terrestrial terrestrial animals theory thermal neutral zone tion tissue transport costs trends unicells unit values velocity Watts zooplankton