The Theory of Electrolytic Dissociation and Some of Its Applications

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Macmillan, 1900 - Electrolysis - 289 pages
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Page 89 - Avogadro's law states that equal volumes of all gases at the same temperature and pressure contain the same number of molecules...
Page 94 - The pressure which a gas exerts at a given temperature, if a definite number of molecules is contained in a definite volume, is equal to the osmotic pressure which is produced by most substances under the same conditions, if they are dissolved in any given liquid.
Page 96 - I have designated those molecules whose ions are independent of one another in their movements, as active; the remaining molecules, whose ions are firmly combined with one another, as inactive. I have also maintained it as probable, that in extreme dilution all the inactive molecules of an electrolyte are transformed into active.
Page 96 - ... the inactive molecules of an electrolyte are transformed into active. This assumption I will make the basis of the calculations now to be carried out. I have designated the relation between the number of active molecules and the sum of the active and inactive molecules, as the activity coefficient. The activity coefficient of an electrolyte at infinite dilution is therefore taken as unity. For smaller dilution it is less than one, and, from the principles established in my work already cited,...
Page 101 - ... the dissociation with which we are here dealing is not exactly the same as that which exists when, eg, an ammonium salt is decomposed at a higher temperature. The products of dissociation in the first case, the ions, are charged with very large quantities of electricity of opposite kind, whence certain conditions appear (the incompressibility of electricity), from which it follows that the ions cannot be separated from one another to any great extent without a large expenditure of energy.
Page 214 - B represent two atoms in a molecule, placed near a conducting sphere, then the effect of the electricity induced on the sphere by A will be represented by an opposite charge placed at A', the image of A in the sphere.
Page 93 - It may then have appeared daring to give Avogadro's law for solutions such a prominent place, and I should not have done so had not Arrhenius pointed out to me, by letter, the probability that salts and analogous substances when in solution break down into ions.
Page 214 - A1 the image of A in the sphere. If A is very near the surface of the sphere, then the negative charge at A' will be very nearly equal to that at A.
Page 43 - In many organic compounds, atoms of an electropositive element hydrogen are replaced by atoms of an electronegative element chlorine, without altering the type of the compound. Thus, for example, we can replace the 4 hydrogen atoms in CH4 by Cl atoms, getting, successively, the compounds CH3C1, CH2C12, CHC13, and CCL,.
Page 43 - CHC13, and CC14. It seemed of interest to investigate what was the nature of the charge of electricity on the chlorine atoms in these compounds. The point is of some historical interest, as the possibility of substituting an electronegative element in a compound for an electropositive one was one of the chief objections against the electrochemical theory of Berzelius.

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