The Ocean Telegraph Cable: Its Construction, the Regulation of Its Specific Gravity, and Submersion Explained (with Map and Illustrations)

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S. Low & Marston, 1865 - Cables, Submarine - 122 pages
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Page 37 - This latter must depend so entirely upon the form of cable to be used, and the depths in which it is to be laid, that it must be left to the engineer to devise in each case. In depths where repairs are possible the amount of slack paid out should be sufficient to enable the cable to be raised without injury for repairs. The question of the ships to be used is one of great importance, to which sufficient attention has never yet been paid. The ship should be of...
Page 122 - ... any case the outer covering should be so devised as to prevent a strain coming on the core ; and the specific gravity should be adapted to the depth, and be such as to ensure the cable sinking evenly. "With our present experience, we believe the safest core for a submarine cable is a strand of purest copper wire, in which solidity is obtained by one of the arrangements before mentioned, and coated — according to the locality in which it is...
Page 77 - there is a fresh starting-point, in the natural history of the sea. At a depth of two miles below the surface, where the pressure must amount to at least a ton and a half on the square inch — where it is difficult to believe that the most attenuated ray of...
Page 32 - ... by a spiral binding, or by means of the covering " compound. Cables of this general form may also, " we believe, be made applicable to the greatest " depths which will be met with. In any case the " outer covering should be so devised as to prevent a " strain coming on the core, and the specific gravity " should be adapted to the depth and be such as to " ensure the cable sinking evenly.
Page 32 - ... to obtain the necessary strength for raising for repairs, either during laying or after they are laid. In this case the danger from abrasion is less, and the iron or steel wire must be protected from corrosion by means of some outer covering. We think such...
Page 36 - Before the route in which a submarine telegraph cable is to be laid is decided on, a careful and detailed survey of the nature and inequalities of the bottom of the sea should be made, and that line selected where there are fewest probabilities of injuries from mechanical or chemical causes, and where (if possible) the depths are such as to allow of the cable being raised for repairs. In such a...
Page 26 - Report of the committee suggests another danger on which I must add a word. At the same page (31), it is said—" The laying " of the cable should be uninterrupted from the " beginning to the end of the journey, and with this. " view no derangement should be possible either in * All the experiments in very deep seas, tend to show that the principle of a rope-covered wire is the right one after all.—The Times, 3Qth September, 1858, on the Atlantic Telegraph.
Page 27 - the machinery connected with the break or in the " engines of the vessel. The speed also should be " maintained as uniform as possible, whatever may be " the weather." Now the hemp cable in itself provides for all these contingencies. It has a peculiarity which in no way belongs to iron cables. Being so light in water, supposing any difficulty to arise on...
Page 32 - We think such an outer covering is to be sought in tarred yarn, protected by some cheap compound of guttapercha or india-rubber. The wires by which strength is given should be laid on longitudinally, or with a very slow turn, and must be kept in place by a special binding, or by means of the covering compound. Cables of this general form may also, we believe, be made applicable to the greatest depths which will bo met with.
Page 28 - ... of the cable. Wire, however small, will break with its own weight at a length of or about three miles, and an iron rod, however large, also breaks at the same length, the strength being of course in proportion to the area, and therefore in proportion to the weight. In dealing, therefore, with deep sea cables, it is evident that the strain cannot be varied by a change in size of the cable itself, but by the alteration of the specific gravity of the substance employed. An iron cable we have seen...

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