Scientific Knowledge and Its Social Problems

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Transaction Publishers, 1973 - Education - 449 pages
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Science is continually confronted by new and difficult social and ethical problems. Some of these problems have arisen from the transformation of the academic science of the prewar period into the industrialized science of the present. Traditional theories of science are now widely recognized as obsolete. In Scientific Knowledge and Its Social Problems (originally published in 1971), Jerome R. Ravetz analyzes the work of science as the creation and investigation of problems. He demonstrates the role of choice and value judgment, and the inevitability of error, in scientific research. Ravetz's new introductory essay is a masterful statement of how our understanding of science has evolved over the last two decades.
 

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Contents

INTRODUCTION
1
THE VARIETIES OF SCIENTIFIC EXPERIENCE
7
WHAT IS SCIENCE?
11
SOCIAL PROBLEMS OF INDUSTRIALIZED SCIENCE
31
THE ACHIEVEMENT OF SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE
69
SCIENCE AS CRAFTSMANS WORK
75
SCIENTIFIC INQUIRY PROBLEM SOLVING ON ARTIFICIAL OBJECTS
109
METHODS
146
THE MANAGEMENT OF NOVELTY
260
QUALITY CONTROL IN SCIENCE
273
ETHICS IN SCIENTIFIC ACTIVITY
289
SCIENCE IN THE MODERN WORLD
315
TECHNICAL PROBLEMS
321
PRACTICAL PROBLEMS
339
IMMATURE AND INEFFECTIVE FIELDS OF INQUIRY
364
CONCLUSION THE FUTURE OF SCIENCE
403

FACTS AND THEIR EVOLUTION
181
THE SPECIAL CHARACTER OF SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE
209
SOCIAL ASPECTS OF SCIENTIFIC ACTIVITY
241
THE PROTECTION OF PROPERTY
245

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