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HISTORY OF THE STUDY OF MAMMALIAN
HEDGEHOGS GENUS ERINACEUS
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According active adult advertisement aggression agonistic alarm allows animal antlers approach associated attack attempts attraction beavers begins behavior body Bowyer breeding bucks bugling bulls captive cats chasing communication copulation courtship cows deer defensive described display distress dolphins dominance ears effect encounters evidence example expression female fighting FIGURE frequently function glands grooming head herd human increase infant interactions legs licking lower male mammals marks mates McCullough means messages meters mother mount moves neonatal noted nursing observed occur odor olfactory performed period pikas placenta play points posture predators present probably produced rabbits range rank rats rear response result rubbing scent marking season seen sexual short shrews side signals similar sniffing social sometimes sound species Struhsaker submission subordinate suggests tail territory threat tree types urine usually vervets vocalizations wapiti whistles wolves young