God's Caliph: Religious Authority in the First Centuries of Islam
This study examines how religious authority was distributed in early Islam. It argues the case that, as in Shi'ism, it was concentrated in the head of state, rather than dispersed among learned laymen as in Sunnism. Originally the caliph was both head of state and ultimate source of religious law; the Sunni pattern represents the outcome of a conflict between the caliph and early scholars who, as spokesmen of the community, assumed religious leadership for themselves. Many Islamicists have assumed the Shi'ite concept of the imamate to be a deviant development. In contrast, this book argues that it is an archaism preserving the concept of religious authority with which all Muslims began.
The title khalífat Allāh
The Umayyad conception of the caliphate
From caliphal to Prophetic sunna
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Abbasids Abd al-Malik Abd al-Razzaq Abdallah Abu Bakr according Aghani al-Farazdaq al-Hajjaj al-Jawzi al-Ma'mun al-Mahdl al-Mansur al-mu'minin al-Mu'tasim al-Walld Allah wa-sunnat nabiyyihi amir appendix attested Beirut Cairo caliphal title chapter citing Ibn Commander concept Crone deputy Diwan early Hadlth earth Farazdaq God's Goldziher governor guidance Hamza Harun Hisham ibid Ibn Abd al-Hakam Ibn al-Muqaffa Ibn Asakir Ibn Qutayba Ibn Sa'd imam Imamls Islam Jarir Kafi khalifat rasul Allah Kharijite khulafa kilab kitab Allah Kulaynl Leiden llah Marwan Marwan II Marwanids Medina messenger mihna Mu'awiya Muhammad Muruj Musannaf Muslim obedience poetry poets political Prophetic sunna Qalqashandl Qudah Qur'an Rasa'il rasul reads references given religion Risala rulers rules Safwat Schacht scholars Shl'ites Sibt similarly Sira successor Sulayman sunan sunna Sunnl Ta'rikh Tabaqat Tahdhib told tradition Tyan ulama Umar Umar II Umayyad caliphs Umayyad period Uthman Wakl Yazld