The Targums: A Critical Introduction
The value and significance of the "targums" translations of the Hebrew Bible into Aramaic, the language of Palestinian Jews for centuries following the Babylonian Exile lie in their approach to translation: within a typically literal rendering of a text, they incorporate extensive exegetical material, additions, and paraphrases that reveal important information about Second Temple Judaism, its interpretation of its bible, and its beliefs. This remarkable survey introduces critical knowledge and insights that have emerged over the past forty years, including targum manuscripts discovered this century and targums known in Aramaic but only recently translated into English. Prolific scholars Flesher and Chilton guide readers in understanding the development of the targums; their relationship to the Hebrew Bible; their dates, language, and place in the history of Christianity and Judaism; and their theologies and methods of interpretation. With clear presentation of current research and the issues involved, including the Targums and the New Testament, and a rich bibliography, this is the most complete and up-to-date introduction to the Targums. An outstanding, highly recommended achievement. Martin McNamara, "Emeritus Professor of Scripture, Milltown Institute, Dublin, Ireland"
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SECTION II The Pentateuchal Targums
SECTION III The Targums of the Prophets and the Writings
SECTION IV The Targums in LateAntique Judaism
SECTION V The Targums and Early Christianity
SECTION VI Conclusions and Prospects
Appendix A The Parallel Expansions of Genesis 2850
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Abraham additional material Amoraic Amoraim appears Aqedah Aramaic translation Babylonian Talmud Bavli biblical book Cairo Geniza chapter Chilton Christian cited composed deﬁnition dialect discussion Esther exegetical Exodus expansions Ezekiel ﬁfth ﬁlm ﬁnd ﬁre ﬁrst ﬁrst century ﬁve Flesher Fragment Targums framework Genesis God’s Gospels Greek Hayward Hebrew Bible Hebrew text identiﬁed indicates inﬂuence interpretation Isaac Isaiah Targum Israel Jesus Jewish Judaism language Leviticus logos Lord manuscripts Masoretic Masoretic Text meaning Megillah memra Messiah meturgeman midrash midrashim Mishnah ofJesus ofthe oral Palestine Palestinian Targums passage Pentateuchal Targums Peshitta phrase prayer Prophets Proto-PT source provides Qumran rabbinic literature rabbinic period reference reﬂect sacriﬁce scholars Scripture scroll Septuagint Shekhinah Sheni signiﬁcant speciﬁc story synagogue Tannaitic Targum Jonathan Targum Neoﬁti Targum Onqelos Targum Pseudo-Jonathan Targum translation Targumim temple term Testament theology tion Torah Tosefta usage verb verse word Writings Targums written Yerushalmi