## The PhotonThis book is about Maxwell's electromagnetic theory of light. First, it is a fully relativistic theory without having a non-relativistic limit. There arise many difficulties in quantising the electromagnetic field and in the physical interpretation of the wavefunction of its quanta. Further, the first quantisation of the Maxwell equations similar to quantisation of classical mechanics by the Schrodinger method, has not been discussed in most books on quantum mechanics. Second, the Maxwell field is the simplest gauge field possessing symmetry with respect to Poincare group of transformations in addition to scale, duality and special conformal transformations whose local versions give rise to new interaction of photons through new gauge fields. One of these gauge fields couples to the spin density of the photon and other particles and can bind fermion-antifermion pairs to give transverse photons. Another interesting aspect of the electromagnetic field is its coherence properties and their interpretation in terms of quantised theory. |

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CROMPTON EFFECT

The idea of unified theory being started from very long years when Maxwell find that electric and magnetic forces are interlinked in 1873. It would very difficult to construct a complete unified theory of every thing in the universe all at one go. Ultimately, the thinking was turn to unification of physics. Lot of hard attempted were taken by the scientist, but no one succeed till now. Why the scientists failed to complete the complete unified theory ? Obviously some reasons are there. The author of this article classify the mentioned points here easily and reach to explain all types of problems from the particle to the universe and find that there is no disgustful problems in anywhere in the materialistic universe and found that the calculated results are accurately consistence to traditional theories . There are two parts in this single theory ----- 1st is unification of physics and 2nd is complete unified theory. Why unified theory could not been solved, the points are there which are till unknown:

1) The mass of a photon is need to know accurately, 2) It is require to know that how many photons are responsible to create energy inside the atom and 3) What is the mass of a graviton particle by which gravitational force is occurred .

I calculated the mass of a photon, graviton, with the help of it it is possible to calculate energy structure of electron, EMR, birth of particles, stars, galaxies etc. This is single theory and applicable from particle to universe. The calculated result tallied to experimental results. So, the mass of a photon which I calculated, that is correct. It can explain the internal functions of matter also. The mane of the book is 1) Mystery of Origin of the Universe ( page- 193, 1990) , 2) Complete Unified Theory.(pages- 424, 1998).

Nirmalendu Das.

Email: nirmalgopa@gmail.com , dated: 27-07-2012.

### Contents

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20 | |

21 | |

18 Scattering of Electromagnetic Waves | 25 |

254 FockSpace Quantization | 59 |

255 GuptaBleuler Quantization | 61 |

256 Wave Particle Duality | 63 |

257 Measurability of Fields | 65 |

CHAPTER 3 COHERENCE PROPERTIES OF LIGHT | 66 |

31 Coherence Properties of Classical Electromagnetic Field | 67 |

32 Coherence Properties of Quantized Electromagnetic Field | 73 |

SYMMETRIES OF THE ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD AND CONSERVATION LAWS | 79 |

19 Confinement of Light | 27 |

PARTICLE NATURE OF LIGHT | 31 |

21 NEWTONS CORPUSCULES | 32 |

212 Orbits of Corpuscules | 34 |

213 Wavization of Corpuscular Theory | 36 |

22 QUANTUM THEORY OF PLANCK EINSTEIN AND BOSE | 37 |

221 Blackbody Radiation | 38 |

222 Photoelectric Effect | 40 |

223 Compton Effect | 41 |

23 MASS AND SPIN OF THE PHOTON | 44 |

241 Schrodinger Equation for Massive Particles | 46 |

242 Schroedinger Equation for Photon | 47 |

243 Angular Momentum of Photon | 49 |

244 Photon Wavefunction in Configuration Space | 52 |

245 Photon Polarization | 53 |

25 QUANTIZATION OF THE ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD | 54 |

251 Covariant Quantization | 55 |

252 Gauge Fixing and Fermi Subsidiary Condition | 56 |

253 GuptaBleuler Subsidiary Condition | 58 |

41 Poincare Invariance | 80 |

42 Scale Invariance | 86 |

43 Special Conformal Invariance | 87 |

44 Duality Invariance | 88 |

LOCAL SYMMETRIES AND INTERACTIONS OF PHOTONS | 92 |

51 Interaction of Charged Particles with Photon | 93 |

52 Local Chiral Invariance of Massless Dirac Equation | 95 |

53 Local Duality Invariance | 96 |

54 Local Scale Invariance | 98 |

55 Local Lorentz Invariance | 100 |

CHAPTER 6 PHOTON AS A COMPOSITE PARTICLE | 103 |

61 FermiYang Model for Plon | 104 |

62 Model for Photon | 105 |

63 Model for Electron and Neutrino | 108 |

64 Electron Decay | 109 |

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