The Photon

Front Cover
Nova Publishers, 2001 - Science - 131 pages
This book is about Maxwell's electromagnetic theory of light. First, it is a fully relativistic theory without having a non-relativistic limit. There arise many difficulties in quantising the electromagnetic field and in the physical interpretation of the wavefunction of its quanta. Further, the first quantisation of the Maxwell equations similar to quantisation of classical mechanics by the Schrodinger method, has not been discussed in most books on quantum mechanics. Second, the Maxwell field is the simplest gauge field possessing symmetry with respect to Poincare group of transformations in addition to scale, duality and special conformal transformations whose local versions give rise to new interaction of photons through new gauge fields. One of these gauge fields couples to the spin density of the photon and other particles and can bind fermion-antifermion pairs to give transverse photons. Another interesting aspect of the electromagnetic field is its coherence properties and their interpretation in terms of quantised theory.
 

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The idea of unified theory being started from very long years when Maxwell find that electric and magnetic forces are interlinked in 1873. It would very difficult to construct a complete unified theory of every thing in the universe all at one go. Ultimately, the thinking was turn to unification of physics. Lot of hard attempted were taken by the scientist, but no one succeed till now. Why the scientists failed to complete the complete unified theory ? Obviously some reasons are there. The author of this article classify the mentioned points here easily and reach to explain all types of problems from the particle to the universe and find that there is no disgustful problems in anywhere in the materialistic universe and found that the calculated results are accurately consistence to traditional theories . There are two parts in this single theory ----- 1st is unification of physics and 2nd is complete unified theory. Why unified theory could not been solved, the points are there which are till unknown:
1) The mass of a photon is need to know accurately, 2) It is require to know that how many photons are responsible to create energy inside the atom and 3) What is the mass of a graviton particle by which gravitational force is occurred .
I calculated the mass of a photon, graviton, with the help of it it is possible to calculate energy structure of electron, EMR, birth of particles, stars, galaxies etc. This is single theory and applicable from particle to universe. The calculated result tallied to experimental results. So, the mass of a photon which I calculated, that is correct. It can explain the internal functions of matter also. The mane of the book is 1) Mystery of Origin of the Universe ( page- 193, 1990) , 2) Complete Unified Theory.(pages- 424, 1998).
Nirmalendu Das.
Email: nirmalgopa@gmail.com , dated: 27-07-2012.
 

Contents

254 FockSpace Quantization
59
255 GuptaBleuler Quantization
61
256 Wave Particle Duality
63
257 Measurability of Fields
65
CHAPTER 3 COHERENCE PROPERTIES OF LIGHT
66
31 Coherence Properties of Classical Electromagnetic Field
67
32 Coherence Properties of Quantized Electromagnetic Field
73
SYMMETRIES OF THE ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD AND CONSERVATION LAWS
79

19 Confinement of Light
27
PARTICLE NATURE OF LIGHT
31
21 NEWTONS CORPUSCULES
32
212 Orbits of Corpuscules
34
213 Wavization of Corpuscular Theory
36
22 QUANTUM THEORY OF PLANCK EINSTEIN AND BOSE
37
221 Blackbody Radiation
38
222 Photoelectric Effect
40
223 Compton Effect
41
23 MASS AND SPIN OF THE PHOTON
44
241 Schrodinger Equation for Massive Particles
46
242 Schroedinger Equation for Photon
47
243 Angular Momentum of Photon
49
244 Photon Wavefunction in Configuration Space
52
245 Photon Polarization
53
25 QUANTIZATION OF THE ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD
54
251 Covariant Quantization
55
252 Gauge Fixing and Fermi Subsidiary Condition
56
253 GuptaBleuler Subsidiary Condition
58
41 Poincare Invariance
80
42 Scale Invariance
86
43 Special Conformal Invariance
87
44 Duality Invariance
88
LOCAL SYMMETRIES AND INTERACTIONS OF PHOTONS
92
51 Interaction of Charged Particles with Photon
93
52 Local Chiral Invariance of Massless Dirac Equation
95
53 Local Duality Invariance
96
54 Local Scale Invariance
98
55 Local Lorentz Invariance
100
CHAPTER 6 PHOTON AS A COMPOSITE PARTICLE
103
61 FermiYang Model for Plon
104
62 Model for Photon
105
63 Model for Electron and Neutrino
108
64 Electron Decay
109
REFERENCES
115
AUTHOR INDEX
120
SUBJECT INDEX
126
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