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Functional Anatomy of the GI Tract and Organs
Neurohumoral Regulation of Gastrointestinal Function
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acid secretion acinar cells activity Alpers DH amino acids ammonia antigens apical membrane assimilation bacteria basolateral bicarbonate bile acids biliary bilirubin blood bolus brush border carbohydrate cell types chloride cholesterol circulation cobalamin colon conjugated contractions dietary digestion and absorption distal duct duodenal duodenum endocrine enteric nervous system enterocyte enzymes epithelial cells epithelium esophagus excretion fatty acids Figure fluid function gallbladder gallstones gastric acid gastrointestinal tract glands glucose hepatic hepatocyte hormones immune important increase ingestion intestinal lumen Kaplowitz lipase lipid Lippincott Williams liver disease lower esophageal sphincter luminal meal mechanisms mediated metabolism micelles molecules motility patterns mucosa nerves neurotransmitters normal nutrients occur oral Owyang parietal cells pathways patients peptide peristalsis physiologic plasma portal Powell DW proteins receptors reflexes regulation relaxation release response result role salivary secretin secretory segment small intestine smooth muscle sodium specific stomach structures synthesized Textbook of Gastroenterology tion transport uptake vagal vitamins