A World View of Criminal Justice
Criminal justice procedure is the bedrock of human rights. Surprisingly, however, in an era of unprecedented change in criminal justice around the world, it is often dismissed as technical and unimportant. This failure to take procedure seriously has a terrible cost, allowing reform to be driven by purely pragmatic considerations, cost-cutting or foreign influence. Current US political domination, for example, has produced a historic and global shift towards more adversarial procedure, which is widely misunderstood and inconsistently implemented. This book addresses such issues by bringing together a huge range of historical and contemporary research on criminal justice in Europe, Asia, Africa, Australasia and the Americas. It proposes a theory of procedure derived from the three great international trial modes of 'inquisitorial justice', 'adversarial justice' and 'popular justice'. This approach opens up the possibility of assessing criminal justice from a more objective standpoint, as well as providing a sourcebook for comparative study and practical reform around the world.
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Adversariality and the Collapse of ªSocialist Legality
THE POPULAR JUSTICE TRADITION
Origins of the English Jury
Juries Originating in the British Overseas Empire
The European Jury
Village Courts and Popular Tribunals
Criminal Justice Reform
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19th century accused adopted adversarial adversary system African assessors ªthe authoritarian authority Beattie bureaucratic campaign Cheka China cited in ibid Code Louis colonial common law concept Constitution continental counsel courts crime criminal justice system Criminal Law criminal procedural code criminal trial Damaska defence domination due process England English Esmein established Europe European evidence examining magistrate France French gacaca garde à vue German Hostettler human rights ibid ICTY influence inquisition-process inquisitorial inquisitorial system institutions investigation Islamic criminal judges judicial judiciary jurisdiction jurors jury trial Kucherov Langbein Law Journal Law Review lawyers legislation Leng and Chiu Lippman London Nazi offences organised party penal People«s period police political popular justice practice pre-trial presumption of innocence procuracy professional prosecution prosecutor provisions punishment qadi radical reform regime represented revolution revolutionary role Roman-canon rules Russian Schöffen shari’a social Solomon Soviet torture tradition tribunals Volksgerichtshof witnesses