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acid amount base basic blast furnace blow body bottom brick called carbon carried cast charge chemical clay closed coal coke combined composition compounds connected construction containing deposits desired diameter direction effect electric elements employed fact feet four fuel gases give given grade heat hole important inches increased ingot known lime lines located lower manganese materials matter means metal method mill mining mixture molten namely natural necessary obtained occurs open hearth open hearth furnaces operation oven oxide oxygen pass phosphorus pig iron pipe plant plate practice present pressure produced properties raised range reaction reduced refractory removed represented rolls separate side silica silicon slag steel stoves substances sulphur surface takes tapping temperature unit usually varying wall weight
Page 13 - Avogadro's principle or hypothesis, which states that equal volumes of all gases under the same conditions of temperature and pressure contain the same number of molecules, was the extension of Dalton's Atomic Theory necessary to put the theoretical interpretation of chemistry on a solid foundation.
Page 244 - The foot-pound is called the unit of work, and may be defined as the work done by a force of one pound acting through a distance of one foot.
Page 579 - carbon steel," consists chiefly of iron, carbon, and manganese. Other elements are always present, but are not essential to the formation of the steel, and the content of carbon or manganese, or both, may be very small. Alloy steel is steel that contains one or more elements other than carbon in sufficient proportion to modify or improve substantially and positively some of its useful properties.
Page 4 - Every particle of matter in the universe attracts every other particle, with a force whose direction is that of the line joining the two, and whose magnitude is directly as the product of their masses, and inversely as the square of their distance from each other.
Page 316 - ... distance equal to the stroke of the cylinder and then allowed to drop upon the anvil or bottom die. This hammer had the advantage of always keeping the top and bottom dies parallel, but was still lacking in one important particular. Its power being derived from the inertia of the falling tup or ram, the hammer had the least power when it was most needed, that is, when pieces of large diameter or of great thickness were being worked. This fault in the single acting hammer was corrected by the...
Page 590 - Moreover, the presence of both chrome and nickel seems to intensify certain physical characteristics. To the increased ductility and toughness conferred by nickel on the ferrite there is added the mineral hardness given to the cementite and pearlite by the chrome, but with a greater resultant effect.
Page 118 - ... their training and by the extent of their experience with these materials. The presence of magnesium in limestone in small amounts has little effect, but as the content increases, it may lower the fusion point of the resultant slag by the formation of double salts. A high percentage (over 3 per cent) of magnesia in blast furnace slag renders it undesirable for cement, but for concrete, ballast, etc., it is desirable as it makes the slag harder. Aside from this objection, not one of much weight,...
Page 578 - Steel which owes its distinctive properties chiefly to some element or elements other than carbon, or jointly to such other elements and carbon.