A Short Manual of Comparative Philology for Classical Students

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Macmillan and Company, limited, 1895 - Comparative linguistics - 619 pages
 

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Contents

Loss of inflexions in English
30
312 Vowelgradation in roots and suffixes
31
Distinction between Idg and Isolating languages
33
Agglutinative
34
Semitic
36
Are all these families sprung from one original?
37
The Principles of modern Philology 378 Prescientific attempts at etymology
38
Scientific study of language
39
Pott Curtius Schleicher Muller etc
40
Ascolis theory of two Asounds etc
42
Verners accent theory
43
434 Principles of modern philology and their authors
44
Ib Philology a science?
47
How Philology differs from the natural sciences
48
Analogy
49
Proportional
51
o series 190
53
Combination of logical and formal analogy
54
Analogy in gender 567 syntax
55
Semasiology
57
Dialect and language
63
Continuous action of natural laws
65
CHAPTER V
66
Physiology of language Breath and voice
67
Mute consonants or stops
68
Spirants
69
Three classes of dental spirants It 71 Greek spiritus asper
70
qh gh kh h th dh ph
73
pf ts
74
Change of Aspirates through affricates to spirants
76
r I and their different forms
78
SECTION PAGE 88 Accent used in two senses
79
Pitchaccent 91 Languages with pitchaccent
80
Accent of Idg language
81
Three degrees of pitch and stressaccent 96 Accentpoints 97 Kinds of pitchaccents
82
Differences between the Germ and other Idg languages
83
Grimms Law 101 Idg breathed aspirates in Germanic
84
Vowels with and without initial glide Spiritus lenis
85
Final glide
86
Consonants with and without glides Table of the more important sounds
87
1089 Assimilation final sounds
88
IndoGermanic sounds
95
Latin alphabet and pronunciation
101
History of the original IndoGermanic sounds in Greek and Latin SECTION PAGE 130 History of p Englishsometimes Idg k and t
106
bh
107
t Idg ti in Greek Latin tl 134 d Latin I sometimes Idg d
108
dh In Latin b and d but not medially 136 fc Two kinds of gutturals and their repre sentation
109
g
110
English spelling
111
High German consonant change
112
e with and without labialisation
115
gh with and without labialisation
117
s Gk spiritus asper Latin rs
118
z
120
w and y 145 Number of original liquids uncertain
121
History of J
122
to
123
n and
124
History of I and 11
125
Nasals as sonants
126
History of m and mm
127
a Latin changes
128
a
129
if Latin changes 162 130 163 6 Latin changes
131
o
132
i Latin changes 166 i 133 167 u Latin changes 168 u
134
3 170 Varying treatment of i and u according to position
135
j and u preceding a sonant in the same syllable 172 medially between vowels
136
following a sonant in the same syllable
137
History of ai Latin changes 175 ei 176 oi
138
au
139
m 140 180 Changes in Latin owing to u
141
On some Combinations of Consonants
142
Cause of assimilation
143
Formal analogy Loss of consonants in combination Logical analogy
144
Influence of suffix on final sound of root
145
New suffix formed of last sound of root + old suffix
146
Double consonants Their simplification 188 Groups of three or more consonants Influence of s in simplifying groups
147
Initial combinations with s followed by stop simplified in Latin
148
Combinations of two consonants 192 two stops
150
stop + spirant of stop + nasal
151
Latin tn and dn Origin of gerund 195 Latin kn
152
Combinations of stop + liquid
153
stop + i
154
Combinations where the first element is a spirant
155
si in Greek 201 tu in Greek and Latin
156
Loss of s before nasals and liquids 203 tr in Greek and Latin initially 204 medially
157
Combinations where the first element is a nasal or liquid
158
mr in Greek and Latin 207 Nasals and liquids followed by i in Greek
159
On some other Sound Changes 209 Contraction of vowels in Idg period in suffixes of dat sing gen pi loc sing contraction with augment
166
Contractions in Greek and Latin
167
u
168
in Latin clo in foreign words in Latin
169
in Greek 217 Compensatory lengthening of vowels
170
221226 in Latin
171
SECTION PAGE 227 Shortening of vowels
172
Loss of a syllable Syncope only in Latin Loss of one of two similar syllables
173
only in Greek
174
Phonetics of the sentence Differences between spoken and written language
175
Consequences of the fusion of words in the sentence
176
tbtpe4o and dfcLXto
177
Wrongly divided words in English
178
Loss of final consonants assimilation v 4peKvmic6v 242 Loss of final s in Latin
179
Crasis Greek dc di kot etc 244 Latin et ac atque
180
Scansion of diphthongs before vowels in Homer 246 Tporl and wp6s
181
d 265 Examples of niigrade in Sanskrit Note i Bartholomaes vowel series
192
ii Streitbergs lengthened grades
193
Difference in nature between Greek and Latin accent
194
Cause which produced special Greek accent Changes in position of accent under new system
195
Accentuation of dactylic words
196
Nature of the Greek accents
197
Interchange of acute and circumflex 272 Two changes in the special accent of Latin
198
SECTION PAGE 281 Parts in a noun form Suffixes primary and secondary
211
Compound stems Analogy in such stems
212
Second part of compound stem becoming suffix Eng ly Lat iter
213
Case forms in compounds
215
Mistaken division of compounds and its results
216
Living and dead suffixes
217
Four methods of forming new substantives
218
Classification of Nouns 289 Boot nouns a without 6 with gradation
220
Nouns with formative suffixes Suffixes their signifi cation
221
Suffix a and feminine gender
222
Gender in other suffixes 293 Natural sex and grammatical gender
223
Gender in words indicating objects without sex
225
Gender in different stems
226
Number Three numbers Plural in abstract nouns
227
its earliest usage lost in Latin
228
Neuter plural with singular verb
229
Schmidts theory of this construction
230
Noun cases Are two confused in Instrumental?
232
Idg system of cases incomplete 302 The vocative not a case 303 No separate forms for some cases
233
Origin of cases Endings pronominal and postpositional Grammatical and local cases
234
Three causes of syncretism in cases Table of syncretism
235
SECTION PAGE 306 Nominative singular
237
Vocative
238
Ablative singular Separate from gen only in o stems
240
Dative singular Confused in Gk with loo
241
Locative singular with and without suffix 313 Extended use of locative in Greek
242
Instrumental singular Two suffixes
243
nom voc acc
244
i?andds
247
Survival of double forms
248
Pitch and stress accent
249
Two systems of accentuation to be discussed
250
Vowel gradation Interchange of e and o affected by analogy
251
not equally conspicuous in all languages
252
Typical forms of roots Weak forms arise from stress accent
253
Levelling of vowel grades in Latin
254
Special cause of levelling in Latin
255
Long vowels in the short vowel series
256
Vowel series rarely complete in any language
257
o Beries
258
o series
259
Possessive adjectives
260
1 with verbs of motion towards 2 of time p 268 S of space ib
269
Ablative
276
1 with verbs 2 with substantives p 284 3 with adjectives
285
1 sociative 2 of likeness and equality p 298 8 of cause p 294
294
Adverbs which are relics of declensionforms
301
Stem formation in the noun
302
THE VERB
352
The Present Formations
369
SECTION PAGE 485 VI Verb stems in dh and d
383
Other possible consonant suffixes 487 VII Verb stems in io Suffix mainly secondary a ip appended to i strong ii weak form of root iii to long vowel...
385
Causatives and intensives in ejo
386
Greek desiderative verbs
388
CHAPTER XXVI
389
Greek future forms 493 Latin futures of three types
390
Distinctive characteristics of the perfect
391
Greek perfects in xa
392
Latin perfect confused with s aorist
393
perfects in vi and ui
394
Strong aorist and imperfect identical Gk 2 Aor Pass
395
Latin imperfects in bam 502 The s aorists
396
Thematic s aorists
397
Aorists in es and as 505 Pluperfect a late development 506 Greek pluperfect
398
SECTION PAGE 508 Subjunctive and optative
399
Subj of thematic stems 511 Analogy in forms of subj
401
516523 Imperative
403
bare stem p 404 618 stem + dhi ib 619 stem + tod p 405
405
CHAPTER XXX
407
Greek dative Infinitives
408
locative
409
Latin Infinitives Active 529 Latin Supines
410
Infinitives Passive 531 Gerund
411
in nt 534 Perfect participle active
412
SECTION PAGE 566 Greek optative with and without in
443
568570 Latin subjunctive
444
Latin imperfect and pluperfeot subjunctive new forms 569 History of Lat present and aorist perfect subj 570 imperfect and pluperfect
445
APPENDIX The Greek and Latin Alphabets
447
Origin of Greek alphabet 602 Adaptation of Phoenician alphabet 603 Development of new Greek symbols 604 Eastern and Western Greek alphabets...
448
453
453
The Greek Dialects 610 Physical features of Greece encourage development of dialects
455
Linguistic without racial changes
456
Achaean Dorian AtticIonic
457
6146 Sources of our knowledge of dialects Causes of corruption
458
6178 Arcadian with specimen
459
619620 Cyprian
462
comprehends three dialects
464
Ficks Homeric Aeolio
465
Thessalian with specimen
466
Lesbian and Aeolic of Asia Minor with specimens
468
Boeotian with specimens
470
Common characteristics of the three dialects
472
627631 Dialects of Northwest Greece in three groups 628 Common characteristics of all three groups 629 Locrian with specimen
474
Phocian including Delphian with specimen
476
Elean with specimens
478
Doric where spoken sources
480
Common characteristics of all Doric dialects 636 dialectus severior dial mitis
482
Laconian with specimens 638 Heraclean with specimen
484
Messenian 640 Dialect of Argolis and Aegina with specimen
486
Megara Selinus Byzantium with specimen 642 bucolic poets
488
6445 CreteGortyn with specimen
490
Melos Thera Cyrene with specimens
492
649656 Ionic with specimens
494
Ionic of Homer 651 lyric and elegiac poets 652 Divisions of Ionic
496
183
507
184
509
186
510
187
515
Participles in meno mono
535
to teuo
536
Latin participle in turo
537
gerundive participle
538

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