A Short Manual of Comparative Philology for Classical Students

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Macmillan and Company, limited, 1895 - Comparative linguistics - 619 pages
 

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Contents

Case suffixes and their uses
29
Loss of inflexions in English
30
312 Vowelgradation in roots and suffixes
31
Distinction between Idg and Isolating languages
33
Agglutinative
34
Semitic
36
Are all these families sprung from one original ?
37
The Principles of modern Philology 378 Prescientific attempts at etymology
38
Scientific study of language
39
Pott Curtius Schleicher Mller etc
40
Ascolis theory of two ksounds etc
42
Verners accent theory
43
434 Principles of modern philology and their authors
44
Is Philology a science ?
47
How Philology differs from the natural sciences
48
Analogy
49
Proportional
51
Combination of logical and formal analogy
54
Analogy in gender 567 syntax
55
Semasiology
57
Dialect and language
63
Continuous action of natural laws
65
CHAPTER V
66
Physiology of language Breath and voice
67
Mute consonants or stops
68
Spirants
69
71 Greek spiritus asper
70
qh gh kh ĝh th dh ph
73
pf ts
74
Change of Aspirates through affricates to spirants
76
r l and their different forms
78
SECTION PAGE 88 Accent used in two senses
79
Pitchaccent 91 Languages with pitchaccent
80
Accent of Idg language
81
Three degrees of pitch and stressaccent 96 Accentpoints 97 Kinds of pitchaccents
82
Differences 1 between English and the Classical languages and 2 between English and other Germanic languages 1
83
Grimms Law 101 Idg breathed aspirates in Germanic
84
Grassmanns Law 103 Consonant combinations not affected by Grimms Law 85 1
85
Consonants with and without glides Table of the more important sounds
87
1089 Assimilation final sounds
88
English spelling
89
IndoGermanic sounds
95
Latin alphabet and pronunciation
101
SECTION PAGE 129
105
History of p English f sometimesIdg k and
106
132
107
134
108
Value of early forms in philology
111
High German consonant change
112
SECTION
116
142
118
150
124
ā 161 ē Latin changes
129
162
130
Latin changes
131
Latin changes
132
i
133
169
134
Varying treatment of į and u according to position 171 į and y preceding a sonant in the same syllable 172 medially between vowels
136
following a sonant in the same syllable 174 History of ai Latin changes 175
137
176
138
178
139
ou 180 Changes in Latin owing to y 181 Diphthongs with long sonant 136
140
On some Combinations of Consonants
142
7 series
147
History of m
156
Shortening of vowels
172
2303 Prothesis of a e 0 1
174
mm
175
2378 Words wrongly divided
176
wpelw and opellw 240 Wrongly divided words in English
178
Loss of final consonants assimilation v DEAKUOTIKOV 242 Loss of final s in Latin 243 Crasis Greek v r kat etc 244 Latin et ac atque
180
Scansion of diphthongs before vowels in Homer 246 προτί and πρός 247 š and eis 248 Survival of double forms 177 178 179 180
181
CHAPTER XIV
182
Chronology Different laws prevail at different times
183
Formal analogy Loss of consonants in combination Logical analogy
184
157
185
New suffix formed of last sound of root + old suffix
186
Double consonants Their simplification
187
Groups of three or more consonants Influence of s in simplifying groups
188
Initial combinations with s followed by stop simplified
189
261
190
Accentuation of dactylic words
196
Latin
203
G
209
SECTION
211
Living and dead suffixes
217
Gender in other suffixes
223
Long sonant nasals
227
304
234
305
235
306
237
308
238
Pitch and stress accent
249
Two systems of accentuation to be discussed
250
Vowel gradation Interchange of e and o affected by analogy
251
not equally conspicuous in all languages
252
Typical forms of roots Weak forms arise from stress accent
253
Levelling of vowel grades in Latin
254
Special cause of levelling in Latin
255
Long vowels in the short vowel series
256
Vowel series rarely complete in any language
257
0 series
258
0 series
259
SECTION PAGE
260
Genitive
270
Structure of the word and sentence
276
b 2
278
a Latin changes
282
354
309
Ablative singular Separate from gen only in o stems 240
311
liquids r stems 355 ter tor 356 nasals
312
Different grades in different meanings 358 Stems in en on
313
men mon mn mn
314
jen jon in in in Lat tion
315
uen zon ūn un ur upto
316
Nom voc Plural
317
Gradations in nt stems
318
Stems in ųent unt 365 vowels and diphthongs
319
2 Confusion with other stems in Latin
320
confused in Greek and Latin adjectives 368 ti
321
tāt and tūt 370
322
Instrumental Plural
323
399
337
401
338
CHAPTER XXIII
342
THE VERB
352
SECTION
356
The Present Formations
369
Dual and Plural
378
p
379
SECTION PAGE 485 VI Verb stems in dh and d
383
Other possible consonant suffixes 487 VII Verb stems in jo Suffix mainly secondary a jo appended to i strong ii weak form of root iii to long vowel ...
385
Causatives and intensives in eio
386
Greek desiderative verbs
388
CHAPTER XXVI
389
Greek future forms 493 Latin futures of three types
390
Distinctive characteristics of the perfect
391
Greek perfects in ka
392
309
393
perfects in vi and ui
394
Strong aorist and imperfect identical Gk 2 Aor Pass
395
Latin imperfects in bam 502 The s aorists
397
Pluperfect a late development 506 Greek pluperfect
398
Subjunctive and optative
399
Thematic subj from nonthematic indic 510 Subj of thematic stems 511 Analogy in forms of subj 512 Optative suffix of two types 513 Optative of 8 ...
402
thematic stems 515 Latin imperfect and pluperfect subjunctives 516523 Imperative
404
bare stem p 404 518 stem + dhi ib 519 stem + td p 405
405
185
406
CHAPTER XXX
407
527
409
Uses of the Verb Forms SECTION PAGE 539 Difficulties of verb syntax
413
Different methods of forming Passive 541 Transitive and intransitive meanings of Active
414
5434 Verbtypes Durative and perfective verbs
415
Uses of the Tenses
417
Possessive adjectives
418
Present may express i action ii process iii state
419
iv present with adverb of timepast
421
Imperfect narrative tense relation to aorist three values
422
Perfect an intensive present expresses a state
424
Greek pluperfect
426
Latin
427
Aorist i perfective ii inceptive iii present iv of immediate past
430
v of future
431
Latin Passive aorist perfect 9
432
Future perfect
433
556567 Uses of the Moods
434
Chief difficulties of the question
435
Subjunctive has three values
436
Subjunctive of will
438
interrogation
439
future potential
440
Optative has three values
441
Optative of wish 564 interrogation
442
SECTION PAGE 566 Greek optative with and without v
443
311
444
Latin imperfect and pluperfect subjunctive new forms 569 History of Lat present and aorist perfect subj 570 imperfect and pluperfect
445
APPENDIX A THE GREEK AND LATIN ALPHABETS 601 Origin of Greek alphabet
447
Adaptation of Phoenician alphabet
448
Development of new Greek symbols
449
Eastern and Western Greek alphabets
450
Origin of Latin and other Italic alphabets
451
312
452
Confusion of breathed and voiced stops 608 Oscan Umbrian Faliscan alphabets Etruscan influence
453
B THE GREEK DIALECTS 610 Physical features of Greece encourage development of dialects
455
Linguistic without racial changes
456
Achaean Dorian AtticIonic
457
6146 Sources of our knowledge of dialects Causes of corruption
458
6178 Arcadian with specimen
459
619_620 Cyprian
462
comprehends three dialects
464
214
466
Boeotian with specimens
470
642
488
SECTION PAGE
498
Latin
507
147
509
186
510
315
511
187
515
318
516
488
517
319
522
321
525
127
526
nu ru lu
528
Latin Supines
529
7 iē 375 0 and ā Relation to cons stems
530
Gerund
531
128
532
in nt
533
Perfect participle active
534
Participles in meno mono
535
to teuo
536
Latin participle in tūro
537
gerundive participle 411
538
412
541
Compensatory lengthening of vowels
544

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