Introduction to Structural and Systematic Botany and Vegetable Physiology: Being a 5th and Rev. Ed. of The Botanical Textbook, Illustrated with Over Thirteen Hundred Woodcuts

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Ivison, Phinney, Blakeman & Company, 1866 - Botany - 555 pages
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Page 322 - Lindley raised three raspberry plants from seeds discovered in the stomach of a man whose skeleton was found thirty feet below the surface of the earth, at the bottom of a barrow, or burial mound, which was opened near Dorchester, England. With the body had been buried some coins of the emperor Hadrian...
Page 333 - ... discovery seemed to destroy all grounds for the assumption of distinct sexes, not only in the Ferns but in the other Cryptogams, since it was argued that the existence of these cellular organs, producing moving spiral filaments, the so-called spermatozoa, upon the germinating fronds, proved that they were not to be regarded as in any way connected with the reproductive processes. " But an essay published by the Count Suminski in 184S totally changed the face of the question...
Page 169 - ... bundles ; or the increased size of the coming leaf-bud will snap them ; or, if these causes are not in operation, a gust of wind, a heavy shower, or even the simple weight of the lamina, will be enough to disrupt the small connections and send the suicidal member to its grave. Such is the history of the fall of the leaf. We have found that it is not an accidental occurrence, arising simply from the vicissitudes of temperature and the like, but a regular and vital process, which commences with...
Page 169 - Monocotyledons separate from the stem and fall by means of an articulation at the junction with the stem, which begins to form early in the season and is completed at the close. There is a kind of disintegration of a transverse layer of cells, which cuts off the petiole by a regular line, and leaves a clean scar, such as is seen in Fig.
Page 496 - The ripened pistillidium (seldom more than one in a flower maturing,) becomes the capsule, which is rarely indehiscent, or splitting by 4 longitudinal slits, but usually opens by a lid (operculum) : beneath the lid, and arising from the mouth of the capsule, are commonly either one or two rows of rigid processes (collectively the peristome), which are always some multiple of 4; those of the outer row are called teeth — of the inner, cilia.
Page 197 - While animals," says the most eminent botanist of this country, " consume the oxygen of the air, and give back carbonic acid, which is injurious to their life, this carbonic acid is the principal element of the food of vegetables, is consumed and decomposed by them, and its oxygen restored for the use of animals. Hence the perfect adaptation of the two great kingdoms of living beings to each other ; — each removing from the atmosphere what would be noxious to the other ; — each yielding to the...
Page 182 - The residue left by the combustion is commonly composed of salts — alkaline chlorides, with bases of potash and soda, earthy and metallic phosphates, caustic or carbonated lime and magnesia, silica, and oxides of iron and of manganese. Several other substances are also met with there, but in quantities so small that they may be neglected.
Page 360 - ... or description of each group, when fully given, actually expresses all the known particulars in which the plants it embraces agree among themselves, and differ from other groups of the same rank. This complete analysis being carried through the system, from the primary divisions down to the species, it is evident that the study of a single plant of each group will give a correct (so far as it goes) and often- a sufficient idea of the structure, habits, and even the sensible properties of the...
Page 221 - In the preceding chapter, we have recognized the close analogy of flower-buds to leaf-buds, and consequently of flowers to branches, and of the leaves of the flower to ordinary leaves. The plant continues for a considerable time to produce buds which develope into branches. At length it produces buds which expand into blossoms. Is there an entirely new system introduced when flowers appear ? Are the blossoms formed upon such a different plan, that the general laws of vegetation, which have sufficed...
Page 171 - Sunflower three and a half feet high, with a surface of 5,616 square inches exposed to the air, was found to perspire at the rate of twenty to thirty ounces avoirdupois every twelve hours, or seventeen times more than a man.

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